SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
New Insights from Tailored Dispersion of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Through the Optimization of Melt Mixing Parameters During Production of Polypropylene-Based Nanocomposites
Valérie LISON, May 2018
One major problematic to solve with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is the control of their process of dispersion in order to avoid agglomerates. This challenge is even more difficult if the host matrix is non-polar. This work focuses on the study of processing parameters to efficiently disperse MWCNTs in polypropylene with two different approaches: direct compounding and masterbatch dilution. The relationship of achieved results of dispersion and electrical performances with the variation of processing parameters will be determined through measured electrical resistivity, agglomerate area ratio and specific mechanical energy calculations.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (Abs)/Mica Composites: Preparation And Characterization
Mohammed Alghamdi, May 2018
Composite materials are made by combining two or more materials. In terms of achieving new and unique properties composite materials are one of the commonly use method. Polymeric composite materials consist of polymer matrix and fillers. Here the selected polymer is Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) as the matrix and mica as the filler. ABS is one of the versatile plastics with high melting point, hardness and strength. ABS is used in making car bumpers, motorcycle helmets, musical instruments, golf clubs, and more. Mica is unique plastic filler in terms of mechanical, thermal, chemical and electrical properties. Because of these good properties, mica is widely used as an additive mixed with nearly all types of plastics such as PP, HDPE, PET, etc. Mixing ABS with mica will prepare products which are better in quality and higher in properties of the existing one which is made with ABS alone. ABS plastics and mica filler with different concentrations were mixed by using an internal mixer. The mixed materials are shaped into standard specimens through injection molding machine. The prepared composites were tested for structural, mechanical and thermal properties.
Statistical Optimization Of Additives For Glass Filled Polypropylene Stabilization
Syed Hassan, May 2018
This paper attempts to optimize the additive package for stabilization of glass filled polypropylene by a comprehensive design of experiment and subsequent regression analysis. Thermoplastic materials are processed at high temperature and high shear. A product’s lifetime exposure to heat, sun light, and humidity cause severe degradation in physical performance and discoloration. Suitable additives, such as heat stabilizers, antioxidants, processing aid and light stabilizers are added to improve the long-term performance. In this study, principles of mixture design of experiment and subsequent statistical optimization of additive packages for a fiber glass filled polypropylene (PP) has been performed using Minitab® to analyze the results. Responses are considered individually to understand the synergism and antagonism that exist within additives. Two anti-oxidants (AOs), two ultraviolet light (UV) stabilizers, an acid neutralizer (AN) and lubricant (L) were evaluated. Combinations of anti-oxidants (AOs) and UV stabilizers support the retention of physical properties and help reduce yellowness after hot air ageing at 150oC up to 1000 hours. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of tensile stress at yield, tensile strain at yield, tensile modulus, notched Charpy and yellowness index. This study also evaluates the effects of projected component levels to achieve target physical properties.
A New Carbon Black For High Jetness And Easy Dispersion
Marc Delvaux, May 2018
With standard Carbon Black, it is difficult to produce compounds with both very high jetness and outstanding mechanical properties at the same time. Therefore, in a first step, we worked on our mechanical dispersion process and achieved strong improvements on jetness and mechanical properties. In a second step, we optimized our particle's morphology to get even better color and dispersion, resulting in further improved results. Summarized, by combining process and particle innovations, mechanical performance can be increased by up to 54% at same jetness level. Depending on the application's needs, jetness can also be increased by up to 65%. Balancing jetness and mechanicals to an optimal combination is possible by adjusting the carbon black loading.
Particle Additives For Simultaneous Enhancement Of Degradation And Toughening In Poly(Lactic Acid) For Additive Manufacturing
Caroline Multari, May 2018
Our goal is to simultaneously improve fracture toughness and biodegradation behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) using the same additive. Our approach explores the use of encapsulation on a series of degradation-promoting additives so that they may survive the melt extrusion process while limiting any breakdown of the matrix. In addition to promoting biodegradation such encapsulated particles are designed to enhance toughening. Such dual use particles have the potential to broaden the uses of PLA. In this work, particle properties, structure and dispersion in PLA are examined and the accompanying tensile behavior investigated. Particles with polysaccharide or protein shells with oil cores were able to be produced and dispersed within the PLA matrix with minimal leakage of the active material during extrusion to 3D printer filament. The elongation at break and yield strength were improved over neat PLA.
A Characterization Of Soy Additives In Biobased Polyethylene Films
Peter Perez, May 2018
Four different soy additives were compounded into Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). The four different additives were compounded and pelletized by FKuR. After a film was produced for each of the four batches, the mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties of each batch was characterized and compared to a control sample. The use of soy in polymeric films improved mechanical properties in LLDPE, reduced the cost and amount of plastic used, and improved water vapor barrier of the polymer. The modulus of each film increased with the use of filler. However, the ultimate extension and ultimate tensile strength decreased in the samples containing soy fillers. The films showed increased crystallinity in samples containing soy fillers. Additionally, thermal analysis indicated large amounts of weight loss in the soy loaded films when heated.
Mechanical Reinforcement With Cellulose Filaments
Helen Lentzakis, May 2018
Kruger Biomaterials proprietary cellulose FiloCell™ is obtained from peeling the filaments from wood fibres using a mechanical process that uses no chemicals or enzymes. Since the peeling is gentle, very thin filaments are obtained while the original length is preserved. The filaments are further surface treated without modification of the chemical structure in order to prevent hornification (agglomeration due to strong hydrogen bonds) and to produce 99.7% dried, re-dispersible filaments. The resulting filaments are renewable, non-toxic, have high surface area, high aspect ratio, mechanical strength and low density. Given these properties, cellulose filaments are a unique multifunctional lightweight filler which can be added to polymer resins as a reinforcing agent and can potentially replace glass fibers.In this work, cellulose filaments are melt-blended into thermoplastics LDPE, Nylon 6 and TPU. Cellulose filaments are shown to effectively increase the Young’s modulus and the strength of all polymer matrices. The mechanical enhancement is increased with loading level of cellulose filaments. It is shown that no compatibilizing agent is needed in order to improve the interaction between the hydrophilic filler and the hydrophobic matrix. Moreover, although one drawback of natural fiber is its thermal degradation at high processing temperature, we managed to successfully compound our cellulose filaments with nylon 6 which has a processing temperature of 230˚C. In LDPE resin, at the same weight, cellulose filaments outperform glass fibers in both tensile strength and tensile modulus. In comparison with other natural fibers, cellulose filaments have the advantage of higher mechanical performance and lower water absorption.
Modeling Doming Deflection Of Caps & Closures With Finite Element Method
Wenbo Xu, May 2018
As part of an effort to develop light weight closures for carbonated soft drinks (CSD), a finite element model has been developed to understand the impact of resin properties and closure design on the end product performance. Phase I of the model development is to understand the deformation mechanics as a precursor to light-weighting effort. The model simulates typical loading conditions in CSD closures and predicts the resultant stress & strain in the closure. The current study focuses on the doming deflection of CSD closures. Preliminary results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The FEA results and experimental data suggest that viscoelasticity of the resin i.e. high density polyethylene (HDPE) plays an important role in determining the long term performance of CSD closures. The current report introduces the key techniques applied in the model development and summarizes the results of the model and the validation experiments.
Yes, You Can Break Certain Design Rules And Still Have A Successful Product - A Logical Look At The Implications
Plastic parts are a lot less forgiving than their metal counterparts on the strict adherence to established design rules for meeting short and long-term performance requirements.These requirements can broadly be broken into:CosmeticsImpact strengthToughnessChemical resistanceTolerance precisionHigh and low-temperature use and cyclingOutdoor exposureCostThus, a much more rigorous adherence to the rules may be required for a high-end handheld, mission-critical computing and communicating device in a hospital that needs to be cosmetically appealing, have very high impact strength, good chemical resistance and high and low-temperature resistance. A failure due to design errors in a simple drop on a device like this in the hand of a medical technician may cause death!On the other hand, a minor blemish or crack in a lightweight remote control for a low-end TV may not nearly be as catastrophic.The base cover of an inexpensive, lightweight inkjet printer may be even more forgiving.To be realistic, design rules may have to be broken based on the end use and other conflicting product requirements.This paper will provide a logical guide on making exceptions to the design rules based on multiple case studies.It will also introduce a design checking software, DFMPro where the rigorousness of the design rules can be “dialed” in based on the specific product requirements
Influence Of Thermal Treatment On The Mechanical Properties Of Thermoplastic Composites Obtained By Large-Format 3D Printing Process
Miguel A. Hidalgo Salazar, May 2018
The process of large-format 3D printing is gaining popularity because larger pieces can be obtained in comparison to the conventional 3D printing process, being a promising alternative for products design and development due to the incorporation of innovative raw materials as biocomposites for large scale manufacturing. In this work, tensile test specimens were 3D-printed by large-format process and different commercial material used in conventional 3D printing. As-printed specimens and annealed specimens were subjected to tensile testing. DSC and TGA were used to optimize the printing process and annealing conditions of the samples. It was observed that the annealing process had a different effects on the properties depending on the materials studied.
Design For Manufacturability – 3D-CAD Design Methodology For Spiral Milled Polymer Processing Tools
Phil Hungenberg, May 2018
3D-CAD systems show limitations with regard to the design process of helical milled parts. This paper introduces a surface based design methodology, which enables the designer to bypass these restrictions. Additionally, an approach to facilitate an early knowledge transfer between production planning and design department is shown and implemented through the use of knowledge based engineering methods. Thereby a virtual product model is generated that represents the exact work piece geometry and contains specific manufacturing information while meeting the functional requirements of spiral mandrel dies and thus impacting the whole process chain positively. Furthermore, a method to optimize certain sections of the flow channel which show subpar flow properties is introduced.
Polypropylene/ Polyvinylidene fluoride Fibrous Water/Fuel Filters Produced by a Unique Multilayer Co-Extrusion Process
Cong Zhang, May 2018
A unique co-extrusion and multiplication technique combined with a water jet fiber separation process was utilized to manufacture nano/micro-fibrous filters for applications in fuel/water separation. Hydrophobic polypropylene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PP/PVDF) dual-component fibrous filters were produced having different fiber size. The filter pore size was found to decrease with decreasing fiber size and the surface area was found to increase with increasing fiber size. The filter having the smallest pore size exhibits the highest filtration efficiency as 93.5%. Corona treatment was conducted on the PP/PVDF fibrous filter to evaluate hydrophilicity influence on water separation. It is found that moderate hydrophilicity improves the water separation efficiency.
Utilizing Should Costs To Engage Millennials In The Workplace
Laurel Bougie, May 2018
The gap of skilled workers in manufacturing is expected to grow to two million workers by 2025 and millennials will make up 75% of the current workforce. Without focusing on the shortage the industry as a whole will face, there is a looming challenge many of us are already facing today, how do we attract and retain the millennial talent we already have?Forbes has noted that the number one reason millennials leave their current role is lacking a sense of purpose in their work. Deloitte has gone so far as to coin the term “purpose gap.” Millennials are not satisfied with the excuse of “that’s how it’s always been done” and have begun pushing back on inefficiencies within the workplace and asking for transparency. In this session, you will learn how the implementation of aPriori’s should costing tool can bring purpose back to your design engineers, cost estimators, and procurement teams. This tool provides real-time feedback and provides transparency surrounding part costs that allows millennials to make data driven decisions surrounding cost throughout the product life cycle and translate the impact of their contributions to the overarching company initiatives. aPriori’s Cost Insight Business analytics tool also allows for the slicing and dicing of should cost data to support business decisions and provides an overarching product cost management solution that will re-engage your millennials so you can focus on pipeline talent for 2025, not immediate back fills.
The Strategic Value Of Designing For Cost
Laurel Bougie, May 2018
Today, manufacturers are being pressured at every angle regarding cost. Customers are asking to pay less for a product, supply chains are asking to be paid more, and stakeholders are asking for a higher margin leading some manufacturers to scratch their heads and say, where do I start?Many of the challenges today stem from lack of visibility surrounding cost drivers when designing a product leading engineers to have little or no insight on the impact design changes have on overall product cost. This lack of visibility often causes late stage engineering churn as completed products exceed target costs and manufacturers are faced with a difficult decision, miss a product launch date or release a product with minimal (or no) margin.aPriori’s Design to Cost solution helps design teams identify and eliminate cost drivers early in the design process, preventing a cycle of churn throughout the organization, causing lost revenue and lost productivity.In this session, you will learn how early visibility to cost drivers will reduce churn and rework throughout your organization and how aPriori uses specific software features to provide design guidance based on cost, encouraging engineers to make cost effective decisions and removing cost related surprises at the conclusion of any project.
Technical Evaluation Of Loctite HY4060GY: The Ideal Replacement For Traditional 2K 5-Minute Epoxies
Matthew Miner, May 2018
Loctite® HY 4060GY™ is a 1:1 two component cyanoacrylate – epoxy hybrid adhesive which makes up part of the new range of Loctite® universal structural bonders launched in March 2017. These innovative products are powered by a patented hybrid technology that combines the most critical attributes of cyanoacrylate and structural adhesives. Loctite® HY 4060GY™ offers durable properties with fast time to develop handling strength in a 25 ml ‘ready to use’ pack with integrated plunger making it an ideal replacement for traditional 2K 5-minute epoxies. This paper presents the performance of Loctite® HY 4060GY™ against a number of Henkel and competitor 2K epoxy adhesives.
Quasi-Static, Non-Linear, Explicit Finite Element Analysis Of Small Pet Bottles
Naser Imran Hossain, May 2018
Packaging design must be a forethought when producing ecofriendly packaging in the water bottling industry. Bottle design research is often restricted by mold production delays and long lead time on physical prototyping. A simulation based approach, or virtual prototyping can create an effective bridge between concept and production phases of the process with a relatively short lead time. This study explores a Quasi-Static Finite Element Approach with non-linear approximations to model water packaging. The study also shows how top-load is used as a metric of structural performance for small PET bottles. The material parameters are based on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), the material of choice in the bottling industry.
Quality Monitoring Of Rotational Molded Parts Using A Nondestructive Technique
Felipe Gomes, May 2018
Achieving optimal quality for rotational molded parts requires a determination of specific conditions for oven temperature and heat/cool time. Traditional tests used to assess the quality of these samples rely on destructive methods, such as impact testing. This paper presents an innovative approach using ultrasonic testing associated with multivariate statistical modeling to evaluate the quality of molded polyethylene (PE) parts from several different batches. Results showed a good correlation of predicted quality using non-destructive data with both impact energy failure and melt flow index, indicating the potential of this technique to be applied on the quality monitoring of this process.
Rotational Molding Of Hybrid Composites Based On Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Ground Tire Rubber/Maple Wood Fibers
Denis Rodrigue, May 2018
In this work, ground tire rubber (GTR) and maple wood fibers (MWF) were dry-blended with linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) to produce hybrid composites by rotational molding. In particular, the effect of a coupling agent (maleated polyethylene, MAPE) was studied to modify the mechanical properties of these hybrid composites. Each compound was characterized in terms of morphology, density and mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact). The results showed that the addition of GTR leads to limited impact strength improvement of the wood fiber composites (WFC), while MAPE addition improved the interfacial adhesion between the fibers and the matrix.
Mechanical Characterization Of Polyethylene/Carbon Nanofiber Composites Prepared By Rotational Molding
Milton Vazquez Lepe, May 2018
Nanocomposites of linear medium density polyethylene (LMDPE) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) treated with oxygen cold plasma were prepared by rotational molding, mixing 0.01, 0.1 and 1% wt. of CNFs by dry-blending. The objective of this work is to study the influence, the change in surface chemistry and morphology in the carbon nanofibers. And thus, the effect on morphology and mechanical properties of this nanocomposites. The results indicated that the plasma technique increases the oxygen functional groups in CNFs. For the nanocomposites, the addition of CNFs modifies the mechanical properties, and major changes occur when were added CNFs treated with cold oxygen plasma.
Morphology And Mechanical Properties Of Poly(Lactic Acid)/Polyethylene Blends Produced By Rotational Molding
Eduardo Ruiz Silva, May 2018
Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and linear medium density polyethylene (LMDPE) at different weight ratios were prepared by rotational molding using a laboratory scale biaxial machine. The blends were previously produced by two different methods: i) dry blending using a high shear mixer and ii) melt blending with a twin-screw extruder. The prepared blends were characterized in terms of morphology, mechanical (tensile, flexion and impact) and thermal (DSC) properties. The morphological results showed a clear incompatibility between the two polymers in which the domains of the minor phase have well defined spherical shapes and a broad size distribution. On the other hand, the results of the mechanical properties depend of the blend preparation method. In general, blends prepared with melt blending presented a slight increase in flexural and tensile properties compared with those blends prepared via dry blending. For impact (charpy) mechanical properties, it was seen an increase until a maximum value was attained, after which the value decreased.

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