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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Optimization Of The Rotational Molding Processing Of Agave Fiber / Lmdpe Composite Materials
Rosa Gabriela López Gonzaleznúñez, May 2018
In this work, agave fiber (20% wt) / LMDPE composites were processed by rotational molding with a commercial antioxidant type and UV stabilizer polyolefin additive in order to determine its influence on the process cycle. The aim was to reduce the processing temperature to ensure non-degradation of the agave fiber. The samples were mechanically characterized by impact, bending and traction tests. The results show that a biocomposite piece without imperfections can be obtained at a Peak Internal Air Temperature (PIAT) of 210ºC, which represents a reduction of the process cycle to obtain a piece with the same characteristics without additive, besides, the mechanical properties were not significantly affected
3-Dimensional Characterization Of The Quality Of Foam-To-Skin Bonding Of Rapid Rotationally Foam Molded Integral-Skin Cellular Composites
. UTKARSH, May 2018
Rapid Rotational Foam Molding (RRFM) was used to manufacture integral-skin composites consisting of various combinations of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) skins that are completely surrounding respective foamed cores made of PE and PP by implementing a suitable chemical blowing agent (CBA) in extrusion. This paper presents the results of implementing a comprehensive 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization technique for evaluating the quality of the obtained foam-to-skin inter-facial bond of such RRFM composites. As the internal cellular structure and bonding depends on different polymer material properties and processing conditions, a 3-D model was developed to map the region of bubble-into-skin penetration, using a micro CT scanner. The experimental results revealed that the reconstructed 3-D model of LLDPE skin has the best bond quality and cell penetration into the skin with porosity of 74.6%.
Surface Treatment Of Agave Fibers And Its Compatibilization With Pla To Produce Rotational Molded Biocomposites
Jorge Robledo-Ortíz, May 2018
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of surface treating agave fibers on the compatibility of PLA-agave biocomposites produced by rotational molding. The agave fibers were treated by immersion in a solution of maleic anhydride grafted PLA (MAPLA). The treatment effect on the physical and mechanical properties was investigated at different fiber loads (10, 20, 30 wt.%). The improved compatibility due to the grafting of PLA chains onto the fiber led to enhanced mechanical properties in comparison with untreated fiber biocomposites as a result of an effective stress transfer. In particular, tensile strength increased from 25 to 41 MPa and modulus from 1.30 to 1.74 GPa at 20 wt.%. It was possible to observe lower water diffusion coefficients indicating that grafting MAPLA decreases the fiber hydrophilicity and promotes better fiber wetting.
New Generation Flame Retardants Based In Ionic Liquids
Yanjie "Jeff" Xu, May 2018
Ionic liquids — salts in a liquid state at ambient conditions — make up a fascinating family of materials whose unique physical properties have made them highly sought after for many challenging applications. Inovia Materials LLC is the first company in the world to patent and commercialize ionic liquids for polymer additive applications. Inovia Materials LLC is positioned to replace and expand the applications of traditional flame retardants with high “green chemistry” qualities, superior performance and enhanced properties. Some advantageous features include:• Negligible volatility and a benign environmental presence;• Better flame retarding performance and longer period of effectiveness;• Milder effects on thermal, mechanical, optical properties of polymers treated;• Significant reduction of polymer melt viscosity, allowing polymers to be processed or recycled at a lower temperature and in a more efficient manner.Inovia flame retardants can find applications in plastics, textiles, and elastomers in the building & construction, electronics & appliances, automotive & transportation, wires & cables, textiles, and other end-use industries.Inovia flame retardants can be applied using different methods:• Mixing with monomers or oligomers before polymerization• Compounding with plastics• Surface modification and coating application
Novel Applications Of Beta Nucleated Polypropylene In Film, Thermoforming, And Injection Molding Applications
philip jacoby, May 2018
Polypropylene can exist in three different crystal forms known as the alpha, beta, and gamma forms, and the alpha form is the most common. The beta crystalline form can be produced in molded and extruded PP parts via the addition of certain nucleating agents. The beta crystal phase can be used to produce some very unique PP products, as well as improve the properties and lower the cost in a wide range of applications. Mayzo has developed a very high activity beta nucleant that is offered in the form of a masterbatch. The converter can add this masterbatch at the extruder hopper in order to create products that exploit these benefits. In this presentation we will examine the ways in which beta nucleation is used today to produce microporous breathable films used in electronics, protective apparel, and construction applications. We will also discuss some new novel applications of breathable PP films. The use of beta nucleation to improve the thermoformability of PP leading to lighter weight and less expensive containers will also be discussed. Finally we will examine how beta nucleation is used to improve the toughness of molded PP parts, and also see how the heat seal strength of PP can be improved without the use of low-melting random copolymers.
Nanolayered Next Generation High Energy Density Capacitors For Electric Vehicles
Michel Ponting, May 2018
Micro- and nanolayer processing, is a technique which combines conventional cast film coextrusion equipment with a multi-layered feedblock, or a series of layer multiplier dies, to enable continuous polymer film fabrication on industrially relevant processing scales. Films processed in this manner can readily be created with hundreds or thousands of layers resulting in individual alternating layered polymer domains with thicknesses ranging from several microns down to less than ten nanometers. Though initially patented in the 1960s, fabrication of micro- and nanolayered polymer films via coextrusion has only recently gained broader acceptance in the commercial products arena.1 Building on the strong fifty year academic and commercial layer multiplication technology advances in processing have enabled modern day production of highly uniform intra-film layers, graded thickness film layers, and construction of 2D ordered structures. Nanolayered films are of interest both as both a developmental research area and as a scalable, cost effective commercial production technique toward high value added materials systems from conventional polymer materials. A review highlighting historical nanolayered coextrusion energy storage film development toward commercial film production and low rate device manufacturing is presented. Technical and commercial product development activities, target markets, and layering enabled enhanced electrical material storage properties will be discussed for nanolayered film capacitor devices. The nanolayering development case study will address layered film scale-up requirements and challenges, uniformity, and additional manufacturing challenges presented when integrating the micro- or nanolayered film into product supply chains with a special focus on quality assurance challenges and procedures. Ref:1. D. Langhe and M. Ponting, Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films. Elsevier, New York, 2016. ISBN: 978-0-323-37125-4.
Advancements In Fiber Laser Workstations For Plastic Welding Applications
Ben Campbell, May 2018
Fiber Lasers integrated into a fully enclosed workstation provide industry ready and easy to operate laser plastic welding systems. MECCO, a leader in laser marking, has worked with a customer to successfully convert marking workstations into laser welding systems. The systems have been designed for traditional transmissive plastic welding and also direct butt joint welding through laser heating of the seam and pressing together of the parts. The customer has found the laser welding process to be cleaner and stronger than friction welding or spin welding and can be accomplished in a comparable processing time. MECCO has now delivered over a dozen systems to this customer and they have been used to successfully laser weld over one million plastic parts for the automotive industry, proving that the technology is viable for manufacturing applications.
Nylon6,6 Rich Co- And Terpolymers: How Tuning Thermal Behavior Enhances Functionality And Enables New Applicaiton Spaces
Jacob Ray, May 2018
Polyamide6,6 (PA66) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic that has many useful functions such as high temperature resistance (melting point = 260 C), strength, toughness, barrier, and chemical resistance. Further, its fast rate of crystallization is often beneficial for fast cycle times of injection molded parts, yet it can be a limitation in many cases. For one, highly filled systems that may include glass fiber or other additives usually have fair to poor surface aesthetics. In the case of film extrusion, PA66 has many limitations such as but not limited to blown film processability, aesthetics (poor haze and gloss), and post orienting and thermo-forming. Through incorporation of additional monomers that do not co-crystallize with PA66 to produce PA66 rich co or terpolyamides, one can reduce crystallization rate up to 100 fold while maintaining semi-crystallinity and a high melting point (> 215 C). Through reducing the rate of crystallization, enhanced properties can be achieved that augments the high melting point enabled by a PA66-rich backbone; these enhanced properties include (1) improved aesthetics (i.e., higher gloss and clarity), (2) larger processing windows for extrusion or blow molding, and (3) toughness (i.e., puncture resistance). These functional benefits enable PA66-rich copolymers to bring value into a variety of film application spaces from monolayer cooking bags to multilayer films for industrial and food packaging. In a converse strategy, this disclosure will touch briefly on increasing melting and crystallization temperature, driven by incorporation of co-crystallizing monomers; this strategy empowers other functional improvements such as improved wear resistance and thermal aging performance that can bring value in a number of industrial and automotive applications.
Thermally Purified Carbons For Food Contact Applications – A Case Study On Eu Compliance
Rijo Jacob Robin, May 2018
Polymers are finding more and more application in the food handling and processing equipment in industries and households. Be it for metal replacement or lower cost or corrosion resistant purposes. Modified polymers using graphite are particularly suitable for demanding applications require the materials to be of conductive or lubricious. Graphite modified polymers are the best solution for self-lubricating parts in environments that can’t accommodate liquid lubricants. To ensure carbonaceous material be of technical quality and purity as stipulated in Plastics Regulation (EU) No 10/2011, Superior Graphite uses its proprietary electro-thermal purification technology, which exposes carbon and graphite materials to temperatures above to 2400°C. Result is a high carbon content and virtually free of impurities. Removing volatile gases and select heavy materials creates a highly ordered crystalline structure with exceptional purity, consistent quality, and increased resiliency, lubrication, and thermal and electrical conductivity.
3D Line Confocal Imaging: New High-Resolution Sensor Technology For Challenging Online & Offline Plastic Measurement Applications
Juha Saily, May 2018
This presentation introduces FocalSpec’s recently patented optical Line Confocal Imaging (LCI) technology that was developed to measure 3D features of various surfaces at sub-micron resolution. LCI enables quick and automatic microtopographic scan of challenging materials that are difficult or impossible to measure with traditional methods. Examples of such products include highly-reflective and transparent precision-molded parts; polymer films, sheets, coatings, profiles, filaments and medical tubing. LCI can be used to measure fast-moving surfaces in real-time as well as stationary product samples in laboratory.Operational principle of the LCI method is discussed. Several applications for LCI sensors are examined: 1. Online surface roughness measurement. 2. Online imaging of embossed and printed 3D features. 3. Online film, sheet and coating thickness measurement. 4. Other potential online imaging applications: Web edge height measurement and 3D wrinkle detection. The company's new Line Confocal Scanner UULA for off-line and at-line 3D metrology applications is introduced too.
The Importance Of How Online Rheometers Accurately Indicate Melt Flow Rate In An Extruder
Catherine Lindquist, May 2018
TITLE: The Importance of How Online Rheometers Accurately Indicates Melt Flow Rate in an ExtruderCOMPANY: Dynisco Azadeh Farahanchi, Rheological Scientist, PH. D.Bill Desrosiers, Vice President, Business DevelopmentCatherine Lindquist, Marketing Communications Manager1Dynisco Inc. 38 Forge Parkway, Franklin, MA 02038ABSTRACTAmong the various methods for developing new polymeric systems, the extrusion process has been increasingly used in the thermoplastics industry in complex applications such as continuous reactors for melt compounding, mixing, and a variety of reaction applications. In any extrusion system precise testing and analysis is necessary in order to maximize the processing efficiency. The rheological testing measurements on extrudate materials are commonly performed by processors to ensure that their products are meeting the desired qualities and understand the effect of adding various components to their materials. A newly designed on-line rheometer has been developed to continuously monitor the rheological parameters of in-process compounds namely melt flow rate (MFR), intrinsic viscosity (IV), and apparent viscosity. This helps compounders to have a real-time quality control on their products and reduce the failure rates or scraps. The present work aims to describe the design of the on-line rheometer and how it can be easily connected to the extruders using existing ports and flexible adaptors. It also has been explained how the proposed on-line rheometer can duplicate the test conditions of an off-line melt flow rate tester on an extruder in any compounding or manufacturing process. Furthermore, through calculation of activation energy in a specific material and introducing a temperature correlation, it has been investigated how the on-line rheometer considers the temperature dependency of material`s MFR and accurately measures this parameter at various operating temperatures.
Taking Injection Mold Cooling To The Next Level
Kenneth Johnson, May 2018
A Patent for the next generation process cooling technology for the plastics industry was awarded to MoldCool USA on February 14, 2012. With a dynamic process such as injection molding, the amount of heat being extracted from the mold needs to be controlled consistently. Conventional TCU’s control the temperature of the coolant but do not control the flow through the mold. The iCool® controls flow and calculates the instantaneous heat exchange rate with the mold using thermodynamic heat exchange formulas. Then using proprietary software adjusts the heat exchange rate as needed to maintain its consistency as the molding process is trending. Huge cycle reductions are available when the speed controlled gear pump delivers up to three times the coolant through the mold. In a good mold design 20-50% cycle reductions and even more are feasible. A Passive Variotherm technique called BoostMold™ is offered to put a customized repeatable timed flow of cooled or heated water through the mold. Cycle reduction of 50% and more with improved visuals are achievable.
Automotive Lightweighting With Reduced Density Polyamide Blends
Ying Shi, May 2018
Schulamid RD “reduced density” nylon is obtained through an immiscible polymer blend which requires the optimization of the compatabilization system, component viscosities, and, most of all, design of the compounding process. In addition to low density, low moisture absorption is achieved which provides part designers with more predictable physical properties and part dimensions when their application is exposed to real environmental conditions. For processors, lower moisture absorption means less moisture to remove. Cost savings can be realized by the reduced melt temperatures that can be used due to the improved flow characteristics of Schulamid RD. Less heat added means less heat to remove which reduces energy consumption for the entire process. A tailored heat stabilization technology has allowed use in under the hood applications like active grille shutters, fan shrouds, and other components requiring temperatures up to 150C.
Laboratory Weathering For Plastics
Andy Francis, May 2018
Weathering testing is a critical component of research, quality control, qualification, and new product development for plastics and polymeric materials used in a variety of industries. Weathering test methods help engineers improve their products, minimize failures, and reduce raw material costs. Weathering testing is composed of two interdependent yet complementary parts: outdoor exposures and laboratory accelerated weathering tests. Outdoor testing is an important complement to accelerated testing as it provides real-time results and exposes test specimens to complex weathering patterns not easily duplicated in an accelerated laboratory environment.The most frequently used accelerated weathering testers are fluorescent UV and xenon arc devices. These accelerated laboratory weathering and lightstability testers are widely used for research and development, quality control, and material certification. They can provide fast and reproducible results. In recent years, laboratory accelerated weathering test standards have been developed that offer improved realism and correlation to outdoor exposures. This presentation compares and contrasts the light emission spectra, temperature control, methods of water simulation, and practical considerations regarding use of these two major types of accelerated testers. The inherent strengths and weaknesses of each test architecture will be discussed, including cost of ownership in addition to technical performance. Defining goals of weathering testing and development of appropriate weathering testing programs will also be presented.
Leveraging Advanced Edge Analytics For Improved Fault Detection In Discrete Manufacturing Processes
Andrew Wilson, May 2018
IntroductionMultivariate analytics data monitoring systems provides a significant fault detection improvement over typical SPC type, or Univariate, solutions currently being used in the discrete manufacturing process industry to allow manufacturers to eliminate manual and visual quality inspection and to achieve real-time process release or "lights out" manufacturing operations.Problem StatementCurrent method of Univariate SPC process control typically utilized by discrete manufacturing process industry is not fully capable to detect quality issues caused by combinations of signals acting jointly on a system. Process engineers also must make manual adjustments to process limits to accommodate for slowly drifting processes, or caused by environmental effects, incoming material issues, and equipment wear. How can the user be certain these limits adjustments will not result in quality issues?Solution The SenseLink™ QM system builds a multivariate model around the optimized process with an acceptable processing window, established from a design of experiments (DOE). The system generates application-specific & automatic limit setting, reducing the reliance on expert process engineers and operators tweaking process knobs causing variations to the process. New data is then compared in real-time to the alarm limits developed by the model. The multivariate alarms are then triggered if the new data is off-spec, sending a reject signal to a part containment device for real-time part containment.OverviewThe SenseLink™ QM system is a data acquisition system with a multivariate data analysis engine that was developed for any industrial manufacturing process, and used with manufacturing processes or secondary operations to provide improved process understanding. Each cycle is multivariate analyzed in real-time to provide variable contribution charts, which highlight process trends not seen by UVA (Univariate). Real world case studies have proven this solution effective.ConclusionUsing a Multivariate fault detection system in your industrial manufacturing processes will provide the highest level of in-process fault detection available along with contribution details which provide an understanding of your process not attainable from traditional SCADA and SPC approaches.MKS InformationAndrew Wilson | Product Marketing Specialist | Automation & Control Solutions | MKS Instruments, Inc.andrew_wilson@mksinst.com | Cell: 512.962.3598www.mksinst.comhttps://www.mksinst.com/product/product.aspx?ProductID=203
Surface Enhancement Via Polypropylene Metallic Compounds
Tanmay Pathak, May 2018
Light weighting and low emissions are desirable aspects for any compound developed for automotive applications. In addition the enhancement of an automotive surface for visual appeal and improved aesthetics is also a key area of research in polymer composites targeted for such applications. There has been considerable development on surface appeal via metallic polymer compounds using effect pigments which allows reduction of weight by metal replacement. However, during injection molding, these compounds could lead to weld line imperfections in parts especially where the flow fronts come together. This is essentially due to poor metallic pigment distribution. The current work shows the development of a Polypropylene metallic composite with the focus on weld line improvement by proper choice of material and tool design to allow injection molded metallic TPO for exterior class A. This development also provides lower costs and lower emissions as it eliminates painting of such TPO compounds.
Copolyester Based Wpc(Wood Plastic Composites)
Wood-plastic composites (WPC) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and thermoplastics. Since a polyolefin-based resin, generally used in WPC, exhibits hydrophobicity, it shows low interfacial adhesion when mixed with hydrophilic wood flour, which causes a problem in that flexural strength of WPC is lowered. In case of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, a phthalate-based plasticizer and stabilizers containing heavy metals can be used in order to enhance processability during the process to make WPC, which are easily extracted out from WPC, causing an environmental pollution problem. Both PP and PVC based WPC are vulnerable to climate changes due to its low dimensional stability according to temperatures, causing many defects and problems. In case of polyester (PET) resin, polyester base resins compatibilizes well with wood, but due to high processing temperature, the wood flour are burned during the process, which makes it impossible to use PET for WPC. Accordingly, in order to solve the above-described problems, ECOZEN® based WPC has been developed. ECOZEN® based WPC has improved physical properties which show superior flexural property (higher than 2 times compared to PP based WPC), impact strength, and lower thermal expansion (or shrinkage). Also it can be easily processed even without help of additional coupling agents, since ECOZEN® shows excellent interfacial adhesion with wood flour. This allows of WPC with higher content of wood flour, which benefits in terms of cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness.
Novel Approach To Controlled Migration Of Antifog Additives In Multilayer Packaging Films
Evgeni Zelikman, May 2018
One of the biggest applications of polymers is food packaging. Downgaging and multilayer structures are the main trends which lead the food packaging in the recent years. This is the main reason why multilayer polymer films rapidly increase their share in the global food packaging market.Controlling the surface properties of polymer films is of outmost importance for both the packaging process and package quality. The most accepted way of keeping up with market requirements when surface properties need to be altered is the use of migrating additives. Slips, antistatics and antifogs are most widely used. These migrating additives migrate throughout the film and form a thin layer on the surface, this way decrease the coefficient of friction (slip), dissipate the electrostatic charge (antistatic) or increase the surface energy of the film (antifog). Antifog additives mainly used in packaging of refrigerated food. Water droplets on the clear packaging impair product’s appearance and decrease its shelf life. Antifog additives migrate to films’s surface and dissolve in the condensate. Droplets are transformed into continuous and transparent water layer. The migration rate of the antifog additives is often influenced by a range of factors for example corona or flame treatment, lamination, tie layers and polar polymers, forcing the migrating additive to migrate towards an undesired direction. This can compromise other vital film properties, such as printability, lamination strength etc’…The ability of film producers to control the migration of antifog additives is of outmost importance.Tosaf’s novel barrier additive will direct the migration to the desired direction thus significantly decrease or completely prevent the migration throughout this additive containing layer. The BR7483PE is incorporated into the layer adjacent to the antifog containing layer (the inner layer). BR7483PE increases the rigidity of the amorphous phase, preventing antifog migration to the undesired direction.
Biodegradable PHA For Use In Fashion Textiles
Anne Schauer-Gimenez, May 2018
Mango Materials has developed an innovative platform technology to turn waste gas streams into ecofriendly, biodegradable materials at competitive economics. Utilizing a biological process, microorganisms convert the carbon from methane into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which can be formulated to produce various products. The recent application development of biodegradable bio-polyester production will be highlighted. By substituting persistent polyester with this biodegradable bio-polyester made of PHA, brands can finally produce truly sustainable garments. Until now PHA has never been developed into commercial textile fibers, making this discovery an opportunity to accelerate the market growth of PHA.
Characterization Of Cure Of Polymeric Material By Dielectric Analysis (Dea)
A variety of questions may arise during the curing process for thermosetting resins. For example, at which temperature, or after how much time, does the resin begin curing? How high is the reactivity? When is curing complete? How can the curing cycle be optimized? Is there any potential for post-curing? The answers to questions such as these can be investigated by using Dielectric Analysis (DEA), not only in the laboratory environment, but also in-process.Dielectric Analysis (DEA) allows for the measurement of changes in the dielectric properties of a resin during UV curing. A sinusoidal voltage (excitation) is applied and the resulting current (response) is measured, along with the phase shift between voltage and current. These values are then used to determine the ion mobility (ion conductivity) and the alignment of dipoles. Of primary interest with regard to curing is the ion viscosity. This is the reciprocal value of the ion conductivity, which is proportional to the loss factor.This technique can be used in study of the curing behavior of thermosetting resins, adhesives, paints and coatings in nearly any application.Various application examples are included in the presentation, including cure by heat and UV cure.

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