SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Failure Criterion for SLS Additive Manufactured Parts
Tim Osswald, P. Obst, M. Launhardt, D. Drummer, P.V. Osswald, May 2017

A 3D failure criterion for anisotropic materials that incorporates stress interactions is implemented to predict failure of selective laser sintered parts. Special test specimens were designed, manufactured and tested. Results show that the failure of additive manufactured parts is strongly influenced by the interaction between stresses. The test data shows an excellent fit with a tensor based failure criterion that includes interaction strength tensor components [1].

New Developments in High Energy Electron Beam Induced Long Chain Branched Polyolefins for Low Density, Non-Crosslinked Foams
Edward Phillips, May 2017

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update in the development and commercialization of radiation modified, linear polyolefins including linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) that have been used to produce non-crosslinked, low density foams. This is an important commercial development in that now it is possible to access a broader range of foam properties through material selection to meet challenging performance requirements.

Innovation in Emerging Areas in Packaging
Narayan Ramesh, May 2017

Markets trends of cost reduction, consumer convenience, sustainability & down-gauging drive the need for new and improved packaging solutions. Development of such solutions requires a look across the entire value chain – an Asset to Market look. This talk will focus on what is required for a successful packaging solutions to be launched in a competitive space. Key examples will be presented and will cover the trends related to recyclability and downgaging.

Effect of Polymer Design and Formulation on the Performance of Water-Based Acrylic Dispersions for Heat Seal Lacquers
Jennifer Rigney, Frank Reinhold, May 2017

Heat seal lacquer materials are tailored for the types of substrate being sealed together and contents of the package. Both polymer properties and formulation variables can be chosen to target bond strength, activation temperature, and bond failure mode, all being optimized for a given end use. This paper will discuss examples of different polymer properties and formulation variables on the end-use performance in a heat seal lacquer.

Demonstration of an Effective Design Validation Tool for 3D Printed Injection Molds (3DPIM)
Gil Robinson, May 2017

Injection molding, the process of injecting plastic material into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity, is one of the world's most popular manufacturing processes. It is best used to mass produce highly accurate, and often complex, end-user parts.

Business Platform in the Modern Textil
Liliana Rubio, May 2017

Be Functional, smart and interactive are the most valuable asset to become a reference in our markets. The global S-textile market is already an 3 billion dollars business that is expect to exhibit double-digit growth, which are very interesting to go ahead with the implementation of projects of Biopolymer, Bio composites and nanotechnology and microelectronic in this issue. Please note the market by moving beyond traditional path of what means value and fulfilling business future.

Effect Nanoclay Addition on the Compatibility and Diffusion Properties of Commercial Gasoline through Polymer Membranes
James Sloan, May 2017

In this work, we consider the effect of the addition of functionalized clay particles to a poly (tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) based polyurethane that is a candidate to be used as for flexible storage containment for a variety military fuels. We have synthesized urethanes with layered silicate inorganic nanoclay concentrations varying from 0% to 10% by weight and evaluated the diffusion of commercial gasoline.

Design Optimization of Maddock Mixers for Single-Screw Extrusion Using Numerical Simulation
Xiaofei Sun, Mark A. Spalding, Timothy W. Womer, Ned Uzelac, May 2017

Maddock-style mixers are used extensively on single-screw extruder screws to disperse materials into the molten resin matrix. Since the time LeRoy invented the device and Maddock perfected and commercialized it, the device has undergone several innovations. The goal of this paper is to describe the optimal flute geometry and mixing undercut dimension for a Maddock mixer with the goal of mitigating degradation gels and maximizing dispersive mixing efficiency.

An Improved Algorithm for Determining Energy Interchange between Heaters and Sheet in Thermoforming
Jim Throne, May 2017

The general Stokesian-generated exact equation for radiant interchange between heaters and sheet produces results similar to the differential method but is more versatile. Often, when a sheet of plastic is heated prior to forming it into a part, there are planes of heaters above and below the sheet. The heaters often have many segments, with each segment temperature controllable. As a result, the energy input to the sheet can be "shaped" to provide uniform heating of the sheet.

Parametric Radiant Energy Absorption in Plastics
Jim Throne, May 2017

I consider the respective roles of inbound radiant energy absorption and internal scattering for plastics containing particulates.

The Myth of Radiopacity
Jim Throne, May 2017

Heat transfer to plastic sheet is described mathematically with a traditional one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation with energy input occurring at the sheet surfaces. The model is called radiopaque. In this article, I propose that plastics usually absorb energy volumetrically. As a result, IK propose modifications both in the traditional heat conduction equation and its attendant boundary equations

How Important Is the Volumetric Absorption Concept? Part 2 - LPM
Jim Throne, May 2017

In part 1 of this series, I defined the equations and parameters for the subject. In Part 2, I examine how volumetric absorption influences time dependent heating rates for PE and PS in three thin-gauge thicknesses. I also compare these results to the effect of heater and sheet emissivities.

A Journey Toward Packaging Sustainability
Donna Visioli, Karlheinz Hausmann, Sarah Perreard, May 2017

Packaging sustainability has many contributing factors including: renewable materials; reduced package weight; recyclable materials; reduced food waste (for food packaging); and reduced packaging waste. These factors and interactions among them are described, along with examples of implementation.

Modelling Mechanical Behaviour of Amorphous Poly (L-Lactic Acid) under Biaxial Stretch at Temperatures above Glass Transition
Huidong Wei, Gary Menary, Shiyong Yan, May 2017

Stretch blow moulding process has been applied to manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) made by poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) improve the mechanical properties of product. Biaxial stretching test was conducted to obtain the mechanical properties of amorphous PLLA materials at temperatures above glass transition. The glass-rubber (GR) constitutive model was adopted to model the mechanical behaviour and can be used for the simulation for the forming process.

Effects of Process Parameters on Cell Morphology of Microcellular Injection Molded Parts
Ming Zhai, May 2017

A Taguchi DOE method was employed to investigate the effects of injection molding process parameters on cell morphology of microcellular foams. Melt temperature, mold temperature, super critical fluid (SCF) concentration, and shot size were considered. It was found that the cell size depended strongly on shot size. The results are helpful for designers to optimize the process conditions to achieve high quality microcellular part.

Novel Peek with High Flowability
Xiaowei Zhang, Suresh Subramonian, Rong Luo, Camilo Cano, Xinyu Zhao, May 2017

Injection molding is a widely used processing technique for fabrication of high volume polyether ether ketone (PEEK) parts. The processing of PEEK at high melt temperatures with viscous resins can be challenging. A novel high flow PEEK with low melt viscosity (MV) has been developed to improve processability while retaining PEEK’s thermo-mechanical behavior. This article showcases high flow PEEK’s balance of properties in comparison to that of conventional PEEK and the processing advantages and the part performance benefits for injection molders and end-customers.

Ultrasonic Processing of Epoxy/CNT Nanopaper Composites
Yanan Zhao, Eusebio Cabrera, Tairong Kuang, Dan Zhang, Willie Yang, Jose M. Castro, Avraham Benatar, L. James Lee, May 2017

This work presents a novel ultrasonic infiltration approach for epoxy and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanopaper prepreg. The prepared prepregs and their nanocomposites demonstrated promising performance in processing flexibility, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, EMI shielding, and thermal transfer properties for potential applications in wind energy, electronics, and automotive industries.

Creep and Recovery of Polylactic Acid and its Clay Nano-Composite
Wei Zheng, Kevin Fuhrman, May 2017

This work focuses on exploring the long-term rheological behavior of polylactic acid and its nano-composites containing 3% clay. Creep and recovery experiments were performed at 160°C for the neat PLA and its composite. Zero-shear rate viscosity was determined and used to determine the terminal relaxation time. Also, the continuous retardation spectra were calculated from the creep data and found to be consistent with those from the oscillatory data.

Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Applications"
Suresh Shah, May 2017

SPE Automotive Innovation Awards

Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Materials and Processes/Enabling Technologies"
Suresh Shah, May 2017

SPE Automotive Innovation Awards

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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