The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Quantitative Mixing Uniformity Assessment in Two Laboratory Scale Devices
A technique is described to quantitatively assess mixing effectiveness. The technique utilizes infrared (IR) analysis of dissimilar polymer blends. The rheology of the blend system can be tuned through temperature to easily derive a spectrum of viscosity ratios. The technique has been applied to two common laboratory mixing apparatus, a batch mixer and a mini-twin screw extruder. Mixing effectiveness of these two devices will be described within both spatial and temporal considerations. The relative merits of the different mixing techniques will be additionally discussed.
CET Resins, A New Alternative for Medical Applications
The present paper introduces CET resins as an alternative for clear, sterilizable medical applications. CET resins are clear SMMA (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymers that compete with materials which include PMMA, polycarbonate, and PETG in medical applications and provides good scratch resistance and better sterilization properties when compared with impact acrylics, and slightly better resistance to alcohol, blood and lipids for medical applications when compared to PC as well.
Effect of Sequence of Stretch and Blowing on Preform Growth in PET Injection Stretch Blow Molding
The instantaneous images of preform during stretch blow molding were obtained by using a transparent mold and a digital camcorder. Delay time of preblow is a determining factor to the preform growth. Effect of sequence of stretch and blowing on the preform growth was investigated experimentally. Four types of perform growth were found. The axial thickness distributions of the bottle were also analyzed.
Dupont Sorona® Polymer: A New Sustainable Platform for Growth
Responding to environmental, sustainability, business and market needs, DuPont has recently commercialized a new polymer platform Sorona®. Sorona® polymer is produced from fiber-grade 1,3- propanediol (PDO). It is a linear semi-crystalline polymer with a melting temperature of ~228°C and a glass transition temperature of about 50°C. (See Figure 1)
Thermal Stabilization of High Molecular Weight L-Polylactide
Polylactide (PLA) polymers are among the most promising plastic made from renewable resources. Thermal stablization of these polymers remains a challenging issue of their industrial processing. We have studied the effect of TNPP in the scope of preventing the molecular weight reduction of PLA at its processing temperature. The stabilizing effect of TNPP was found to strongly depend on the concentration used.
Thickness Optimization of Blow Molded Parts Using FEM/AANN/GA Methods
An artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the numerical simulation data was developed to build the relationship between parison thickness distributions and part thickness distributions. A real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) was used to search for the optimal parison thickness distributions to produce a blow molded part with a uniform thickness distribution. The results showed that the hybrid method was an effective algorithm to optimize the parison thickness.
Temperature Profiles within Reheated Preform in Stretch Blow Molding
A thermal model was developed for the perform reheating in the two-stage injection stretch blow molding. The temperature distributions through the thickness of the preform and along its length were obtained by solving the model with ANSYS finite element software. With the use of real-time temperature measuring system, experiments were carried out to obtain the temperature evolution within reheated preform as it rotated. The numerical results were compared with experimental data.
Preparation of Interconnected Polycaprolactone Porous Scaffolds by a Combination Polymer and Salt Particulate Leaching
Porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were prepared by melt blending PCL with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and NaCl salt particulates using twin-screw extrusion, followed by leaching out of water soluble PEO and NaCl. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) were carried out to caracterized their morphology. The scaffolds were highly porous (75-85%) and exhibited an open cellular pore structures.
Viscosity Measurement of PS/CO2 Solution at Low Temperatures
The shear viscosity of solution of polystyrene(PS) in supercritical carbon dioxide(CO2) was measured at low temperatures between 100°C and 130°C at CO2 pressures up to 21MPa using Couette viscometer. The flow curves allow reasonable estimates of the zero shear viscosity as a function of temperature and pressure, otherwise difficult to obtain. Measured viscosity at Newtonian region was correlated to the WLF (Williams, Landel and Ferry) equation.
Protective Coatings for Implantable Medical Devices
While many families of polymers have been used to provide protection of device components in an implanted environment, poly-p-xylylene based (Parylene) coatings have been shown to have favorable compatibility, durability and barrier properties. An overview of the use of Parylene coatings in medical implant devices is presented. This paper describes critical factors related to performance and provides an example of coating barrier properties as measured on printed circuit boards (PCBs) with standardized circuits immersed in phosphate-buffered saline solution under expected use and accelerated conditions.
Oriented Porous Poly(L/DL-Lactide) Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
A new structure of poly(L-lactide-co-30%-DLlactide) PLDL created by a unique process that formed oriented longitudinal pores in combination with smaller random pores fully interconnected throughout was evaluated in vivo to determine its ability to facilitate bone regeneration in a critical size defect in the rat femur. Using quantitative micro-CT analysis, the PLDL-treated defects exhibited significantly greater bone volume and vascular volume fractions than untreated defects at 16 weeks post-operation.
Bismuth Oxychloride for Radiopaque Medical Devices
Bismuth oxychloride has been used as filler for many applications for several decades. The unique properties of bismuth oxychloride, such as high radiopacity, excellent physical and chemical stability, high density and good dispersibiltiy, make it one of the ideal fillers for radiopaque products, such as radiopaque medical devices. Detailed comparisons of bismuth oxychloride with commonly used fillers for radiopaque medical devices were performed.
An Analysis of Polyamide 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Polyamide 6,6 Copolymer Containers for the Storage of Radioactive Materials
Testing and analysis of Polyamide 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Polyamide 6,6 Copolymers have provided a series of results, which have been used to evaluate the lifetime performance of a polymeric container used for the storage of radioactive materials. Techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis have been used to monitor the ingression of aqueous solutions into the polymer materials. Irradiation using the SLOWPOKE-2 Research Reactor has mimicked the radiation exposure to the container resulting from the stored radioactive materials.
Segmentation, Lamination and Post Processing of Amorphous Thermoplastic Urethane
Medical Device Labs, Inc. proprietary segmenting and lamination technology processes have been developed for their (SMEthane™)1 TPU (Thermoplastic Urethane) and (pAguaMedicina™)1 super porous structural hydrogel. These materials are based on well-known formulae in combination with qualified processes that have been used to produce FDA approved Devices, such as the TigerTail 2 Ureteral Catheter.
Do Nanoparticles Really Assist in Nucleation of Fine Cells in Polyolefin Foams?
Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that is extremely large to cover in one technical paper. It touches various technology disciplines and covers several applications. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of nanoclay on nucleation of polypropylene foams. Particularly, the goal is to understand the ability of nanocomposites in producing finer cells compared to talc in polypropylene.
Materials Characterization Based on Ultrasonic Spectral Analysis
In this paper the use of ultrasonic spectral analysis in material characterization is examined. Though the discussion is mainly on metallic materials, the basic ideas and techniques are mostly applicable to polymers and plastics.
A Novel Technique to Measure Tensile Properties of Plastics at High Strain Rates
High strain-rate properties have many applications in the simulation of automotive crash and product drop testing. These properties are difficult to measure. Difficulties arise from inaccuracies in extensometry at high strain rates due to extensometer slippage and background noise due to the sudden increase in stress at the start of the test. To eliminate these inaccuracies we use an inferential technique that correlates strain to extension at low strain rates and show that this can be extended to measure strain at higher strain rates
Impact of UV Exposure on Aesthetic and Mechanical Properties of Thick Rotomolded Articles
If not adequately protected, polyethylene is prone to degradation when exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. Long-term direct sun light exposure was performed on thick rotomolded polyethylene samples. The impact of this exposure on aesthetic and physical properties, such as elongation at break, gloss, and color, was measured for polyethylene resins commonly used in the rotomolding industry. Molded samples from dry blended powder as well as compounded color powder were used in this research.
Plastics and Creativity
Unlike other materials, the number of polymeric materials and material combinations with polymers grows rapidly. Consequently, design opportunities daily arise but not all of them may be reconized instantly. Some opportunities are discovered by chance. A short review is presented about past design opportunities and when they were reconized, as well as a vision on design opportunities of some current developments, such as various types of new copolymers compatibilized blends, polymeric semiconductors and nano-structured materials.
The Plastics Industry in the 21ST Century: The Rules Have Changed
Over the past decade the acceleration of manufacturing productivity growth, a shift in regional raw material costs, the advent of the information age, globalization, and the power of Wall Street over the business strategies of publicly-held companies, have all had a cumulative, significant impact on the plastics industry. These effects went relatively unnoticed during the bubble economy of the 1990s, but now are increasingly revealed as the root causes of much of the dramatic change in the business environment of the 21st century. How did these changes come about? What is the outlook for the next decade?
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