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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Summary Results of a Novel Single Screw Compounder
Keith Luker, May 2007

A novel single screw mixer is described having multiple elongational flow fields, upstream axial mixing, and thin film degassing. SEMs show high magnification examples of mixing including a PS/PE immiscible polymer blend, ceramic nano particles, and iscrete carbon nano tubes. Novel degassing over the mixer is cited using three vents in a 36/1 L/D single screw to process undried PETG.

Fundamental Structure-Property Relationship of Polymer Nanocomposites
W.-J. Boo, L. Y. Sun, S.-M. Lee, E. Moghbelli, G. Warren, A. Clearfield, H.-J. Sue, May 2007

The structure-property relationship of a set of model polymer nanocomposite systems has been investigated. The findings suggest that degree of exfoliation and aspect ratio of nanoplatelets in polymer matrices can greatly influence physical, mechanical and rheological behaviors of polymers. Most importantly, there appears to be a limit to which polymer nanocomposites can be applied for structural applications.

The Role of Chain Branching in Extrusion Blow Molding of Polyvinylidene Fluoride
Nafaa Mekhilef, Lotfi Hedhli, May 2007

The effect of long chain branching in polyvinylidene fluoride in extrusion blow molding is investigated in light of the enhanced rheological properties. The presence of long chain branching increased the melt strength; melt elasticity and strain hardening of the branched samples as opposed to their linear counterparts. These enhanced properties suggest better sag resistance during blow molding and higher blow-up ratio while achieving uniform wall thickness.

Full 3D Injection Molding Analysis and Modeling Tips for Complex Models
Byung-Gi Pyo, May 2007

3D injection molding analysis is getting popular to get accurate result in the industry. However, mesh generation time and memory size for complex models are being demanded more than those of general model or conventional 2.5D analysis. This paper adopts simulation technology such as CVFEM(Control Volume Finite Element Method) or fast multipole method based on BEM(Boundary Element Method) and shows real case for large models. It does not only develop effective method to reduce modeling time, but it also performs analysis with significant performance enhancement.

A Comparative Study of Simulation Softwares for Stretch Blow Moulding
D.U. Erbulut, S.H. Masood, I. Sbarski, May 2007

Blow moulding simulation softwares are effective tools for blow moulders to predict and improve the performance of blow moulding process. Not many such software are available in the market. This paper presents a comparative study of two blow moulding software - B-SIM and Blow View – for specific application of stretch blow moulding process. Features and capabilities are compared based on the simulation study of a plastic bottle.

Plastic Integral Hinges; Design, Processing, and Failure Analysis
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2007

This paper addresses the design issues and processing conditions that affect the performance of integral hinges. For example, the relation between the material properties and the design of the hinge is addressed. An answer will be given to the question why does the increase in the melt temperature improve the performance of hinges?" Some case studies of failed hinges are discussed to practically show the effect of processing material and design on hinges performance. Microscopy was used to investigate the failure mechanism of these hinges."

Effect of Die Design and Wall Slip on Die Drool Phenomenon for Metallocene Based LLDPE: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
M. Zatloukal, K. Chaloupkova, May 2007

The effect of die design and wall slip on the die drool phenomenon was investigated for metallocene based LLDPE. It has been found that die exit opening and wall slip can significantly reduce the die drool phenomenon. Moreover, theoretical research has revealed that die drool onset can be explained by the negative/non-monotonic pressure profile generated inside the die and/or at the die exit region due to melt elasticity.

Determination of Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity for Polyolefins by Improved Entrance Pressure Drop Measurements
M. Zatloukal, J. Musil, May 2007

In this work, specially designed zero-length dies were used for the entrance pressure drop measurements with the aim to determine uniaxial extensional viscosity of polyolefin melts by using effective entry length correction and Cogswell/Binding models and the results were compared with the extensional rheology determined with the Sentmanat extensional rheometer. Reasonable agreement between these two techniques has been obtained.

Evaluation of Scratch Behavior of Plastic Mouldings
Hiromi Kita, Machiko Mizoguchi, Takashi Kuriyama, May 2007

Scratching mechanisms of injection molded PC/ABS blend were investigated. The scratching damage was microscopically observed by OM, SEM, and TEM. The scaly pattern and bank were observed in ploughing, wedge formation and cutting modes commonly. The micro cracking appeared in the bank in the case of cutting mode, and it would become internal cracks growing to the cracks and a cutting tip. The film laminated structure near the surface induced by injection moldings severely deformed and wavy pattern and elongated particles were found in the bank.

An Experimatal Study on Micro Injection Paramaters
Woo-Chul Jung, Young-Moo Heo, Kwang-Ho Shin, Gil-Sang Yoon, Sung-Ho Chang, May 2007

In recent industry, with the miniaturization and high-precision of machine part, the development of mold manufacturing technology for mass production is accompanied by the development of new technology such as IT and BT. In this study, the spiral type injection mold with a 200 ? thickness is made for investigating the influence of injection molding parameter and the flow length is measured through an experiment. Besides, Taguchi method is used in this experiment and the obtained data are analyzed using ANOVA method.

A Study of Foaming Agent in Bio-Based Polymer Foams
Yi-Fan Wu, Chien-Chung Fu, May 2007

In this study, the effect of variety foaming agents in bio-based polymer such as chemical blowing type of AC and BIH, and physical type of microsphere, has been investigated. The basic matrix of bio-based polymer was compounding PLA with native starch and calcium carbonate in twin screw extruder prior to introducing variety foaming agents at low temperature by dynamic rheometer to avoid the degradation of foaming agents.The topology of cross-section of their foams structure by SEM revealed that physical type of microspheres attained much better density but lower porosity than the others.

Integrated True 3D Simulation of Rapid Heat Cycle Molding Process
Yan-Chen Chiou, Ya-Yuen Chou, Hsien-Sen Chiu, Chau-Kai Yu, Chia-Hsiang Hsu, May 2007

In the Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM) Process, the mold temperature is rapidly changed in each cycle to improve part quality and reduce cycle time. In this paper, an integrated fully transient true 3D simulation approach is proposed by considering the interplay between filling/pack and cooling stages to study and further optimize the RHCM process.

Multivariate Process Analysis for the Prediction of Injection Molded Part Quality
Daniel Hazen, David Kazmer, May 2007

The injection molding process is a highly complex system in which multiple variables influence the final molded part quality. This paper investigates a multivariate approach to on-line quality prediction and monitoring that can be fully and readily implemented for production purposes. This approach consists of determining and monitoring the most important process data features that are generally available and automatically correlating them to critical quality attributes.

Rhological Properties of Water Molecules Nano-Jet Printing Process
Chi-Ying Kuo, Chi Fu Dai, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2007

This study investigates the performance of nanojet printing processes by molecular dynamic simulation. By compressing water molecules in the Au nozzle, the whole nanojet printing process for different operation conditions are simulated. Distributions of velocity, temperature, pressure, density, and so on, are also discussed in this study. The results form various systems show that the lower operational temperatures make nanojet processes more stable and thus reduce satellite droplets. Results that show various features can help understand these processes.

Direct Visualization of Conventional Injection Molding
Angel S. Yanev, Gustavo R. Dias, Antonio M. Cunha, May 2007

A transparent mould with two injection locations, allowing flow visualization on both conventional and two materials injection molding, was used in this research.The aim of this work is to monitor and assess the polymer melt behavior under controlled processing conditions, during the filling and holding stages of the molding cycle. Visual access in the mould is allowed by the sapphire windows, surrounding the cavity. Visualization results are combined with local pressure and temperature measurements and compared with Moldflow MPI software simulations.

Determination of Gate Locations in Computer-Aided Injection Molding Analysis
Won-Gil Ryim, Sang Mun Yun, May 2007

With increase of injection molding CAE and adoption of 3D mesh which takes more computation time in analysis, gate location optimization in shortest time and smallest resources becomes most important issue. This paper discusses about the process of determining the gate locations using injection molding CAE, and the technologies developed for the optimization, which controls flow balance and weldline of molded parts.

A Statistical Approach to Plastic Pipe Production
Suleyman Deveci, Zafer Gemici, Mualla Oner, May 2007

In this study, the effects of process parameters of plastic pipe production to the plastic pipe's wall thickness were examined. Process and wall thickness data were collected in a regular time period and statistical calculation made according to these data. X-R control schemes drawn and process capability indices were calculated. Data points, which were out of control in a statistical manner, were determined and process parameters which causes these variations determined.

PLA/TPS Blends with Improved Ductility
Michel A. Huneault, Hongbo Li, , Nathalie Chapleau, May 2007

Blending Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) generally leads to brittle materials. It was found however that if the blends are properly compatibilized through reactive extrusion and plasticized, the TPS phase can significantly increase the ductility of the material leading to materials with elongation at break in excess of 200%. This paper examines compatibilization and plasticization strategies to combine PLA and TPS into useful injection moldable materials.

Determination of Valid Minimum Dimensions of DDENT Specimens to Evaluate the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) of Polyethylenes
Mariselis Trujillo, Karina G. Izquierdo, Johan J. Sánchez, Alejandro J. Müller, May 2007

We studied how the dimensions of test specimens affect EWF results. One grade of commercial HDPE was evaluated. We demonstrate that reductions of ? 20 to 30% of conventional dimensions used for DDENT geometry allow reproducible and valid results, similar to those obtained with larger specimens. Results show that it is not possible to reduce dimensions more than 30% and still comply with geometric validations related to EWF.

Processing Conditions and Thermal Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)
Langang Niu, Nick R. Schott, May 2007

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is an excellent biodegradable polymer that is widely used. The processing conditions of PLA were established by developing a Molding Area Diagram (MAD) on a Roboshot® injection molding machine with different mold temperatures. Isothermal bulk crystallization kinetics of the PLA with 1weight% of talc as a nucleating agent was studied on DSC.

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