SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Crystallization of UV-Irradiated ?-Nucleated Polypropylene
Jana Výchop?ová, Roman ?ermák, Martin Obadal, Vincent Verney, Sophie Commereuc, May 2007

The work deals with crystallization of photodegraded polypropylene containing various amounts of ?-nucleating agent. Samples were irradiated by UV-light, melted and subsequently non-isothermally crystallized. The results showed that the crystallization temperature decreased with increasing irradiation time. The irradiation caused the splitting of crystallization exotherms into two peaks indicating two crystallization mechanisms. The presence of ?-nucleating agent in the material suppressed the peak splitting.

The Use of Annodised Aluminum as a Rotational Moulding Tool Material
M.P. McCourt, M.P. Kearns, May 2007

This paper presents the results from investigations into the differences in moulding with a novel anodised machined aluminium mould material and a conventional machined aluminium mould material. Significant differences in terms of cycletime were observed between the moulding carried out with the anodised moulding and the conventional aluminium mould surface material with no change in the shrinkage, part appearance or mechanical properties noted between either.

The Influence of Color
Teri Belcher, Kevin Harvey, May 2007

Color is an essential part of life for human beings. It influences our bodies, our minds and our souls. Our physiological, psychological and emotional responses to color have been studied in great detail. Over time the appeal of colors changes, leading to color trends in the market place. As new colorant and special effect technologies become available, our color choices and preferences continually evolve. Studying color perception and trends could provide the edge we, as an industry, seek in better understanding the market place.

Wetting Behavior of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Ionomer on Silica Surface
Xiaowen Zhai, Steven Swier, R.G. Schmidt, R.A. Weiss, May 2007

The wetting behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) ionomers on a silica surface was investigated. Spin-cast films of Li-salts of a carboxylated PDMS (Li- CPDMS) on silica resisted dewetting even after annealing at 120°C for 144 h, while the unmodified PDMS did not even form a homogeneous film.

Evaluation of Different Injection Molding Screw Designs for Better Color Mixing
Robert A. Sickles Jr., Luke M. Miller, Walter S. Smith, Timothy W. Womer, May 2007

Improved color mixing for injection molding can be improved by different variables. Screw speed, melt temperature, backpressure, barrel temperature profiles, screw design, dispersion discs, etc. can all influence color dispersion. This study will focus on the screw design and its affect on color mixing and its affect on other process parameters.

Modeling of Non-Isothermal High Stalk Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles for Non-Newtonian Fluids
M. Zatloukal, H. Mavridis, J. Vlcek, P. Saha, May 2007

In this work, the high stalk film blowing model derived by using variational principles has been used to investigate the effect of cooling on the HMW – HDPE bubble formation with respect to final film properties. Moreover, the effect of the molecular weight and long chain branching has been theoretically studied by the help of the newly proposed generalized Newtonian model.

Extrusion and Spinning of Nylon-6,6 / Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Mixtures
Ziqiang Li, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2007

This work had two aspects. In the first one, the interaction between CO2 and nylon-6,6 melt is explored by investigating by the effects of CO2 on nylon-6,6 shear viscosity and hydrogen bonding. In the second one, an attempt is made to establish feasible conditions for spinning of nylon-6,6/CO2 mixtures, to produce nylon filaments. Extrusion and spinning experiments of nylon- 6,6 / CO2 were conducted on a twin- screw extruder line and the effects of carbon dioxide on viscosity and spun filaments morphology and tensile properties were investigated.

Comparison of N2 and CO2 in Extrusion Foaming of Wood-Fiber Composites
G. Guo, G.M. Rizvi, C.B. Park, May 2007

Producing cellular wood-fiber/plastic composite (WPC) with physical blowing agents (PBA) offers unique advantages over chemical blowing agents (CBA). This paper compares the foaming behaviors of two environmentally benign PBAs, namely N2 and CO2, to help understand PBA-based foaming mechanisms in WPC. This understanding will help in making proper choices about PBAs and foam processing parameters.

High Heat Ductile (HHD) Copolymers by Reactive Extrusion
Brian Mullen, May 2007

A blend of two polycarbonate copolymers, high-heat poly(ester-carbonate) (PEC) and polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane copolymer (PC-PDMS) provided an opaque, pearlescent blend. However, when a transesterification catalyst was used, the blend becomes miscible and translucent/transparent. The high-heat, ductile (HHD) materials were analyzed for a range of properties including optics, rheology, heat performance, flame retardance, and mechanical properties. The hydrolytic stability of the HHD materials was also measured by comparing the ductility of the blends before and after autoclaving.

Extrusion Foaming Behaviors of PET with CO2
Wenge Zheng, Patrick C. Lee, Chul B. Park, May 2007

This paper investigates the extrusion foaming behaviors of Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) blown with supercritical CO2. The evolution of the foam's morphology once it exited from the die was recorded using a CCD camera and also characterized by SEM. Microcellular PET foams can be prepared by optimizing the PET properties as well as the processing conditions.

Phase Separation in Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer/Polycarbonate Blends under Shear
Kam-Wa D. Lee, Musa R. Kamal, Philip K. Chan, May 2007

The effect of shear on the temporal development of phase separation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends was examined. Experiments were performed using a polarized-light microscope, equipped with a shearing hot stage. Phase separation, with and without shear, in blends containing 50 wt % LCP were analyzed. The results showed that the speed and amount of phase separation increased when shear was applied.

Foaming Dynamics of Immiscible Polymer Blends
Zhihua Guo, Maxwell J. Wingert, Jiong Shen, L. James Lee, David L. Tomasko, May 2007

To better understand the underlying mechanisms of immiscible blend polystyrene/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) foaming, a simple bilayer representation is examined. Visual observation of batch foaming of this system is conducted and a quenching method is used to study foams with different bubble growth time. These help understand the effects of blend morphology on foaming in a more quantitative way.

Rheology of Heterogeneous Polymer Melts
Charles L. Rohn, Eric Bennett, Fred Mazzeo, May 2007

Heterogeneous polymers represent an important class of plastics that comprise polymer blends, alloys, and fiber or mineral filled plastics. The rheology of these melts is dominated by the transient morphology that is produced during fabrication into finished products. Standard laboratory rheological tests do not take into account morphology. Combined measurements of a capillary viscometer and controlled stress rotational rheometer can provide a better understanding of the processing behavior of these complex rheological plastics

Injection-Molding Degradation of Biodegradable Polylactide
Richard Haibach, May 2007

The effects of degradation on the mechanical and aesthetic properties of injection-molded biodegradable polylactide (PLA) parts were studied. Standard tensile test specimens were molded from NatureWorks 3051D injection-molding grade PLA. Barrel residence time, machine nozzle temperature, and shear rate were varied during the injection-molding process. The resulting specimens were analyzed in a tensile testing machine. Tensile strength, tensile modulus and visual inspection were used to characterize the extent of degradation that occurred during each process.

Investigation of Failures in a Polypropylene Water Piping System
Donald E. Duvall, May 2007

Polypropylene pipe and fittings were selected for a high-purity, highly chlorinated water system in a medical research facility. In the first four years of operation, the system sustained an excessive number of leaks. This paper is an account of the investigation of the causes of those leaks.

High-Energy Electron Beam Processing of Wood Composites
W.L. Griffith, G.F. Dorsey, T.G. Rials, D.P. Harper, Nicole Labbé, T. Elder, May 2007

For high doses, a DMA analysis of wood and composites revealed a change in lignin resulting in reduced Tg, and that electron scavenging from lignin's aromatic structure could hinder the cure. An investigation of purified cellulose revealed changes at higher doses in the physical response to moisture and thermal stability without a change in the degree of crystallinity as measured by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS).

Developments in Water Assisted Injection Molding Process Technology and Simulation
A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman, J. Sienz, L. Mulvaney-Johnson, E.C. Brown, P.D. Coates, May 2007

A preliminary account is given of issues involved in numerical simulation of water assisted injection molding (WAIM), extending techniques used previously for gas assisted molding. An industrial scale, instrumented process is used to guide and validate the simulations. Novel sensor technologies, including ultrasound, are used at process to monitor the position of the water bubble during filling, together with melt pressures and temperatures as well as the residual wall thickness.

In-Mold-Fabric Decorated Parts with a Plastic Trimmed Edge
Mark A. Spalding, Brent A. Salamon, Mike E. Hus, Steven A. Sell, Curt E. Peterson, Jeffrey D. Wenzel, May 2007

Several processes currently exist that produce a thin-walled part with a fabric-covered surface. These processes, however, are limited by cost, low production volumes, and durability of the part. A new process is described here that produces a high-quality and durable, thin-walled part using low-cost mass production techniques.

Effect of Additives on the Color & Appearance of Plastics
Bruce M. Mulholland, May 2007

The color and appearance of a formulation must be engineered just like any other desired thermal or mechanical property of the resin itself. The ability to achieve the desired color can be adversely affected by processing or the combination with modifiers and additives in the resin system. Even if colors can be achieved, other performance attributes such as UV stability, flammability or mechanical properties may be adversely affected as well. This paper looks at some of these color concerns.

Effects of Molecular Weight Distribution on the Formation of Fibers of Electrospun Polystyrene
Xiaoshu Dai, May 2007

It is widely recognized that molecular weight distribution (MWD) is an important factor affecting the rheological behavior of polymer solutions. In this contribution, the effects of MWD on the formation of electrospun polystyrene fibers in THF have been studied. The results are compared with the monodisperse system. The importance of chain entanglements attributed to high molecular weight component within the polydisperse system has been acknowledged. Concentrations for the incipient as well as stable fiber formation in a polydisperse system may be predicted.

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