SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Surface and Interfacial Studies of Plant Biopolymers
James D. Batteas, May 2007

The outermost surfaces of plants are covered by a cuticular membrane which modulates the interactions of the plant with its environment and provides a protective barrier to pathogens. As this interface is a composed primarily of a biopolymer, physical methodologies for their study of polymer mechanical behavior and chemical make-up can provide molecular level details of these systems. In this paper we will briefly describe so important questions in plant biology and the methodologies needed to address these problems which can be found in polymer and physical chemistry.

Effects of Drying Conditions on the Morphology and Performance of Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Copolymer Films for Proton Exchange Membranes
Myoungbae Lee, James E. McGrath, Donald G. Baird, May 2007

Sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymer has been shown to be a promising material for proton exchange membranes for fuel cell via a lab-scale batch solution casting followed by a mild radiation drying. The effects of the conditions of intense forced convection air on the morphology and performance of this copolymer film have been investigated for industrial production.

Industrial Applications of Heat Sealing Modeling
Ronald D. Moffitt, May 2007

A mathematical model and computer simulation describing the constant heat sealing process for linear, semi-crystalline polymer films has been applied to heat sealing process optimization. Among the applications explored are the identification of a sealant resin melt index range that ensures maximum heat strength achievement for a prescribed dwell time, the development of sealing conditions for controlled frangibility seals, and heat sealing equipment specification and selection.

Continuous Film Casting and Evaluation of Novel Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells
J. Huang, D.G. Baird, G. Fan, Z. Zhang, A. Badami, S. Takamuku, J.E. McGrath, May 2007

A continuous solution film casting process was studied for manufacturing novel polymer membranes for PEM fuel cells. A lab reverse roll casting machine was built and used to cast membranes with typical thickness of 25 micron to 50 micron. Investigation was made to establish the casting and drying conditions to produce voids-free, uniform membranes with desired thickness. The proton conductivity, mechanical properties and morphology of the membranes were evaluated.

Permeability of Flake-Filled Barrier Membranes: A Numerical Evaluation
Xiaoming Chen, Thanasis D. Papathanasiou, May 2007

Direct numerical simulations are conducted in two dimensions to compute the permeability of membranes filled with aligned flakes. The effects of flake aspect ratio, volume fraction, spatial distribution and size dispersion are examined. Lots of simulations have been carried out using a fast multipole-accelerated boundary element method, and the results are compared to some of the existing models.

Injection Molding of Thermoplastic Elastomer on Etched Aluminum: Taguchi Optimization
Petri A. Fabrin, Maija E. Hoikkanen, Jyrki E. Vuorinen, May 2007

Aluminum and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hybrids are prepared by insert injection molding. No pre-heating or macroscopical mechanical bonding are needed. The key step is an appropriate etching of the aluminum surface giving a porous surface for melt penetration. In this work, the effect of injection molding parameters on bond strength is studied using Taguchi optimization. Mechanical strength is determined by peel test. Also, the effect of insert/TPE thickness ratio is studied.

Evaluating Thermal Uniformity with Pulse Cooling
Sean Byrne, John Kremm, May 2007

Pulse cooling is a method where mold temperatures are monitored, and cold water is introduced to control the steel temperature. A variation of this technique delivers water immediately after mold closing for variable pulse times. Using this approach, better distribution of surface temperature on injection molded parts may be achieved compared to traditional cooling with a thermolator. Thermocouples and a thermal camera were used to evaluate mold and part surface temperatures respectively.

Impact of Metallizer Process Controls on Optical and Gas Barrier Uniformity
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2007

A process study of vacuum metallizer was performed and the results in terms of optical density uniformity, metal adhesion and barrier uniformity were studied. Gas barrier was found to be a complex function of the process parameters studied while adhesion was determined to be sensitive to testing materials as well as process parameters. Visual uniformity was found to depend primarily on metallization pressure.

Effect of Nano-Clay on Foaming of WF/HDPE Composites
Y.H. Lee, T. Kuboki, C.B. Park, M. Sain, May 2007

This paper investigates the foaming behavior of wood fiber/HDPE composites with small amounts of nano-clay. The nano-clay dispersion was characterized by XRD and TEM. An extrusion foaming experiment blown with N2 was conducted. The cell nucleation and growth of composite foams were studied with varying processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and clay content. The effect of nano-clay on the final cell morphologies and foam density of wood fiber/clay/HDPE nanocomposite foams were identified.

Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyses to Probe the Glassy State Response of a Sub-Tg Annealed Model Epoxy Network
Gale A. Holmes, May 2007

Using dynamic mechanical analyzers the relaxation behavior of a loosely cross-linked model epoxy resin was investigated before and after room temperature aging. Preliminary results indicate a stiffening of the storage moduli occurs below –50 °C, the ? relaxation temperature of the epoxy network, with a subsequent softening of the network above room temperature and a drop in the apparent glass transition temperature (Tg ). of the material with aging.

Study on the Sorption and Desorption of N-Pentane in Polystyrene and Polypropylene
Xinghua Zhang, Zhenjin Zhu, Chul B. Park, E.K. Lee, Nan Chen, H.E. Naguib, May 2007

This paper studied the sorption/desorption of n-pentane in polystyrene and polypropylene using the sheet samples. The solubility of n-pentane in PS and PP was measured. And the concentration-dependent diffusivity of n-pentane in PS and PP was computationally modeled. Results exhibit that the simulated profiles match well with the experimental data while the penetrant concentration is above 30%.

Chemical Resistance at Different Stress Levels of Materials with Active Packaging Additives
Matt Gill, Justin Courter, May 2007

Active packaging is widely used in the food and beverage industry to help ensure optimum food preservation. Currently, there are differing theories on the effects of active packaging additives on stressed induced plastic parts. This paper presents the results of a study that tests the chemical resistance of several different plastics under differing levels of stress when made with active packaging additives.

The Relationship between Shear Imbalance and Thickness
Eric D. Baluh, Mikael S. Wager, May 2007

The effects of shear induced flow variation on the filling patterns of injection molds has been well documented in the recent past. Further understanding of their effects will allow engineers to use these effects to their advantage as opposed to attempting to eliminate their impact. This paper studies how shear induced flow variation is effected by thickness for several materials in a single cavity mold. The results and theories contained herein can be a valuable tool to both a design engineer laying out a new mold and a processing engineer producing parts using an existing mold.

Measurement of PP Melt Swelling Due to CO2 Dissolution
Y.G. Li, J. Wang, C.B. Park, May 2007

Understanding the thermophysical and thermodynamic properties of polymer/gas mixtures is critical for controlling cellular morphology. This paper describes measurements of pure polypropylene (PP) density and PP/CO2 volume swelling at elevated temperatures and pressures using a newly developed method. Also, measured volume swelling is compared with the swelling calculated from SL and SS EOS.

Impact of Foaming on Electrical Conductivity and Fiber Orientation of COC/Carbon Fiber Composites in Injection Molding
Ghodratollah Hashemi-Motlagh, Andrew N. Hrymak, Michael R. Thompson, May 2007

This paper investigates the impact of foaming on the electrical conductivity and fiber orientation of a carbon filled cyclic olefin copolymer in injection molding. Results show that foaming can lead to significant improvement of electrical conductivity in the out-of-plane direction. Due to the preferred in-plane fiber orientation during mold filling, the growth of a bubble adjacent to a carbon fiber would re-orient the fiber in the out-of-plane direction.

Pressure Drop Threshold for Nucleation of PS/CO2 Foaming
Siu N. Leung, Anson Wong, Chul B. Park, May 2007

Two methods to predict the pressure drop threshold (?Pthreshold) to initiate bubble nucleation in polymer foaming processes are developed. One method uses the modified nucleation theory developed in our previous work, while the other utilizes computer simulations to model the growth profiles of the first observable bubbles in batch foaming experiments. Both approaches have shown good agreement in their ?Pthreshold predictions. Moreover, the effects of pressure drop rate, gas content, and temperature on ?Pthreshold are demonstrated.

A Six-Sigma Approach for Investment Plans in a Plastics Production Plant
Gabriel Ventura, Ranganath Shastri, Miguel Ángel Vega, May 2007

It is possible to demonstrate that QFD (Quality Function Deployment) within a norm space permits to realize gap analysis and investment plans for a complex plastics production plant, using its process capability in the last Quality house.For the use of the same metric: DPMO, it is possible to compare man power, materials, maintenance, machinery, environment and methods. In these terms it is feasible to benchmarking the investment plans.

Failure Analysis of a Refrigerator Component Based on DOE" & Optimization Techniques"
Gabriel Ventura, Ranganath Shastri, Miguel Ángel Vega, May 2007

There are many engineering situations where it is not necessary to analyze the whole domain of a physical model.In such instances, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain an equivalent bilinear form using Lax-Milgram theorem with an orthogonal form applied to electrical appliance and turbomachinery, with a transfer matrix and variation principles.This transfer matrix solves a problem in shorter time than the Traditional DOE-FEA (design of Experiments) (Finite Element Analysis) Methods.

Weathering and Light Stabilization of Select Plastic Materials
Peter Solera, May 2007

In this paper we will examine various aspects of weatherability for several significant polymers. Light stabilization and polymer degradation mechanisms will be compared as well as strategies for imparting weatherability for these materials. Several UV aging studies will be included to illustrate stabilization techniques, and some comparative studies highlighting accelerated weathering vs. outdoor weathering will be discussed.

A Study of Integration of LIGA and MEDM Technology on the Micro Injection Molding of Ink Jet Printers' Nozzle Plates
S.C. Tseng, Y.C. Chen, B.Y. Shew, May 2007

A new approach is introduced to fabricate nozzle plates in this study. The micro mold was made by integration of LIGA and M-EDM technology to improve the accuracy. Micro injection molding was applied to produce the nozzle plates. There are sixty micro through-holes on each plate. The diameters of molded nozzle plates were 102±1 micro meters. The proposed manufacture procedures are believed to be more accurate and economical.

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