SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library
Keyword/Author:
After Date: (mm/dd/yy)  
 
Sort By:   Date Added  ▲  |  Publication Date  ▲  |  Title  ▲  |  Author  ▲
= Members Only
Conference Proceedings
Plant Trials for Powder Priming of SMC
Hamid Kia, September 2007
Based on the information generated at GM R&D Center six SMC formulations were developed and produced by SMC suppliers and subsequently molded into automotive body panels for powder primer application readiness tests. The panels were evaluated in the lab for shrinkage moisture absorption adhesion to the conductive coating and powder application. Based on the results all six formulations were approved for plant trials. The trials took place in Shreveport and Lordstown assembly plants. It was noted that the use of infrared heating to bake the powder is detrimental to SMC as it causes rapid heating of SMC substrate resulting in a high flux of moisture in a short period of time. It was also learned that the experimental conductive coating improves the powder prime capability of SMC and allows powder priming after an extended exposure to the plant environment.
Reduction of Styrene Evolution from Thermoset Polyester Resin Composites
Doug Denton, September 2007
The incomplete reaction of polyester resins in fiber reinforced composites results in residual styrene monomer that slowly evolves from the polymer matrix over many years. In cars and trucks where extensive use of such composites are open to the interior of the passenger compartment the odor of styrene can become strong enough to be objectionable to the vehicle occupants. A design goal for the development of coupe sports car which makes extensive use of polyester SMC and liquid molded composites was to assure that the styrene concentration in the passenger compartment is not offensive. Simple test methods were devised to assess styrene evolution at the material component and vehicle levels. Through the systematic study of resin paste formulations process modifications coatings and part design features this design goal was met before the launch of the vehicle.
Characterization of High Performance Short Carbon Fiber / Epoxy Systems: Effect of Fiber Length
Paolo Feraboli, September 2007
This paper seeks to quantify the influence of fiber length on the mechanical properties of discontinuous carbon fiber/ epoxy laminates produced by compression molding. New interest is being generated toward low-cost composite material forms for aerospace applications. The high-volume carbon fiber content combined with aerospace-qualified epoxy resins opens up opportunities for more aircraft parts to be made of non-metallic materials. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner uses this material form for the manufacturing of the structural window frames. This material-process combination is ideal for large volume production of three-dimensional parts allowing for the molding of complex contours thickness variations and stiffening ribs. Interesting relationships between fiber length and tensile compressive and flexural moduli and strengths are observed.
Recent Developments in UV Stable SMC Technology
Rob Seats, September 2007
The desire for weatherable sheet molding compound for use in a wide range of applications is growing due to the potential of eliminating paint or coatings on the molded article. The elimination of paint or protective coatings can result in significant cost savings and an improved environmental profile for the article. These savings can be realized if existing coating facilities are at capacity or if a green field investment is being considered. Weatherable sheet molding compound (SMC) technology has been previously available but has been designed for specific applications. Transfer of this technology into other application areas has resulted in some performance issues. This paper discusses new developments in weatherable sheet molding compound technology that allow its use in a wider range of application areas.
From Process Modeling to Elastic Property Prediction for Long-Fiber Inection-Molded Thermoplastics
Ba Nghiep Nguyen, September 2007
This paper presents an experimental-modeling approach to predict the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The approach accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in LFTs. LFT samples were injection-molded for the study and fiber length and orientation distributions were measured at different locations for use in the computation of the composite properties. The current fiber orientation model was assessed to determine its capability to predict fiber orientation in LFTs. Predicted fiber orientations for the studied LFT samples were also used in the calculation of the elastic properties of these samples and the predicted overall moduli were then compared with the experimental results. The elastic property prediction was based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method combined with the orientation averaging technique. The predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental LFT data.
Strain Rate Effects on the Energy Absorption of Rapidly Manufactured Composite Tubes
Aaron Brighton, September 2007
As a result of recent increases in fuel prices and the growing number of accident fatalities the two major concerns of the automotive industry and their customers are now occupant safety and fuel economy [1 2]. Increasing the amount of energy and optimizing the manner in which energy is absorbed within vehicle crush zones can improve occupant survivability in the event of a crash while fuel economy is improved through a reduction in weight. Axial crush tests were conducted on tubular specimens of Carbon/Epoxy (Toray T700/G83C) and Glass/Polypropylene (Twintex). This paper presents results from the tests conducted at quasi-static rates at Deakin University Victoria Australia and intermediate rate tests performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tennessee USA. The quasi-static tests were conducted at 10mm/min (1.67x10-4m/s) using 5 different forms of initiation. Tests at intermediate rates were performed at speeds of 0.25m/s 0.5m/s 0.75m/s 1m/s 2m/s and 4m/s. Quasi-static tests of tubular specimens showed high specific energy absorption (SEA) values with 86 kJ/kg for Carbon/Epoxy specimens. The SEA of the Glass/Polypropylene specimens was measured to be 29 kJ/kg. Results from the intermediate test rates showed that SEA values did not fall below 55kJ/kg for carbon specimens or 35kJ/kg for the Glass/Polypropylene specimens. When compared with typical steel and aluminium SEA values of 15kJ/kg and 30kJ/kg respectively the benefits of using composite materials in crash structures is apparent.
Toward the Development of a Test Standard for Characterizing the Energy Absorption of Composite Materials: Part II
Paolo Feraboli, September 2007
One of the key factors preventing the widespread adoption of composites in primary crash structures is the absence of specialized test methods for the characterization of specific energy absorption (SEA). Aside from thin-walled tubular specimens a limited number of attempts have been made at developing test specimens that are easier to manufacture. The possibility to employ a self-stabilizing corrugated plate specimen has been previously presented. In this study results from three corrugated plate geometries are compared with those of a flat plate specimen. The latter is tested using ad hoc developed support fixture which is based on an initial concept proposed by NASA/ Army. Preliminary results show that the flat specimen SEA results do not agree with those of the corrugated ones thus emphasizing the complex nature of SEA.
THE ACCURACY OF STANDARD DRAG FLOW AND PRESSURE GRADIENT CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Mark A. Spalding , Greg A. Campbell, May 2008
Simulation and design of single-screw extruder screws using the standard pseudo-Newtonian Tadmor method is known to deviate from measured performance yet many screw designers have used the method successfully for many years. The research provided here shows the conditions when the method can be used for design work and when it deviates to an unacceptable level.
MULTILAYER RHEOLOGY EFFECTS IN COEXTRUDED STRUCTURE DESIGN
Joseph Dooley , Chunxia Costeux , Robert Wrisley , Andrew Schlader, May 2008
Multilayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper will discuss techniques for measuring experimental rheology data for monolayer and multilayer structures. These data will then be used to show the effects of multilayer rheology in the design of coextruded structures.
THE EFFECTS OF RUNNING DIFFERENT BARREL TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR VARIOUS RESINS
Walter S. Smith , Luke A. Miller , Jason Willis , Timothy W. Womer, May 2008
Differences in solids conveying screw pressure profile generation output motor energy required will vary between resins barrel temperature profiles and resin preheat temperatures on a single stage low compression barrier screw design.
THE DIFFERENT USES OF THE MELT FLOW INDEX EQUIPMENT
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2008
The Melt Flow Index (MFI) of a polymer could be measured using MFI equipment and following ASTM D1238. Although MFI is a single point it is the most known test that uses MFI equipment. However MFI equipment could yield more information about the polymer. Principally by changing the heating temperature the dwell time and the load a whole set of information could be obtained from the MFI equipment. This paper sheds some light on some of the possible information that could be gained from MFI equipment by changing temperature time and load.
THE DIFFERENT USES OF THE MELT FLOW INDEX EQUIPMENT
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2008
The Melt Flow Index (MFI) of a polymer could be measured using MFI equipment and following ASTM D1238. Although, MFI is a single point, it is the most known test that uses MFI equipment. However, MFI equipment could yield more information about the polymer. Principally, by changing the heating temperature, the dwell time, and the load a whole set of information could be obtained from the MFI equipment. This paper sheds some light on some of the possible information that could be gained from MFI equipment by changing temperature, time, and load.
THE FUTURE OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY: DECLINE OR GROWTH?
Roger F. Jones, May 2008
In 2006-2007 General Electric decided to divest its plastics operations as insufficiently profitable. Since GE has been a pioneer in the plastics industry for close to a century one has to ask ƒ??just what does the future hold for the rest of us?ƒ? Will plastics continue to growth faster than the overall economy or is this now all in the past? This paper will examine the question from both a national and a global view.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight sulfonation fraction and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane, a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight, sulfonation fraction, and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement
DESIGN OF BIORESORBABLE SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE GROWTH
Vincent M. DiTaranto , Aldo Crugnola , Matthew Mandeville, May 2008
Scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells using the compression molding method. The material used in the scaffold was a mixture of polycaprolactone hydroxyapatite and glycerin. The porosity of the scaffold was obtained by using salt and subsequent leaching with distilled water. Salt retention after soaking was addressed by using ultrasonic leaching.Three major factors in the design of a scaffold: porosity interconnectivity of the pores and distribution of the materials were achieved.
LASER WELDING OF TRANSPARENT PLASTICS BY MEANS OF THE INTERMEDIATE FILM METHOD
Walter Michaeli , Wolf-Martin Hoffmann , Edmund Haberstroh, May 2008
Laser transmission welding is an innovative joining process for plastics. Since one joining part has to be laser absorbing the polymer has to be pigmented with an absorbent material. By this however the material is colored to a certain extent. Reducing the absorbing material to the joining area enables the welding of transparent polymer parts without any pigmentation. The possibilites of this method to expand the laser welding spectrum are presented in this paper.
COUPLED FEA SIMULATION OF THE DEMOULDING PROCEDURE OF INJECTION MOULDED PARTS
Walter Michaeli , Bernhard Helbich, May 2008
A reasonable design of the injection mould has to guarantee that the moulded part can be demoulded without damaging either the ejection system in the mould or the part. In the conventional mould design this damaging occurs at the very end of the development process of the injection mould when it is already assembled. A simulation procedure is presented which enables the mould maker to mechanically layout the demoulding system. It combines a process simulation with a structural analysis and hence maximises the advantage of using CAE.


This item is only available to members

Click here to log in

If you are not currently a member,
you can click here to fill out a member application.

We're sorry, but your current web site security status does not grant you access to the resource you are attempting to view.




spe2018logov4.png

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net