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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Reinforcing Virgin, Reprocessed or Recycled Polypropylene with Agave Fiber and a Polymeric Coupling Agent
Carlos F. Jasso-Gastinel, Reyes J. Sanjuan-Raygoza, May 2007

The capability of using residual agave fibers from the tequila production process, to reinforce virgin, reprocessed or recycled polypropylene, is studied. Polypropylene composites were prepared with milled (65 mesh) agave fibers and Epolene E-43 in a twin screw extruder, varying the amount of fiber. Tensile, impact and dynamic tests, along with scanning electron microscopy observations were carried out. The importance of polymer-fiber interaction through the presence of the coupling agent is clearly shown.

Evaluation of the Melting Capacity of Three Single Screws
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2007

The instantaneous melting rate of single screw extruders are primarily affected by the screw speed, barrel temperature and screw diameter. However, with all things being equal the overall melting capacity of the screw is controlled by the solids bed-barrel contact area. Three screws, a conventional, a barrier and a barrier-XLK design with variable melting areas are evaluated for overall melting capacity as defined by their specific output.

The Interactions between TIO2 Surface and Polymer Additives
R.B. Maynard, P.M. Niedenzu, May 2007

A common pigment used in many plastics application is titanium dioxide, TiO2. The pigment is a very effective light scattering inorganic oxide for the coloration and protection of plastic articles. TiO2 is also an insoluble material within a polymer matrix that has the ability to adsorb other materials within the matrix. Additionally, a TiO2 particle can catalyze the formation of chromophores from additive deactivation. This aper describes the adsorption behavior of several TiO2 materials compares the rate of chromophore formation in a polyethylene matrix compounded.

Synthesis and Characterization of a Cationic Monomer with ATRP Initiation Sites
Kory Slye, May 2007

The current coronary artery stent coating, styrene-bisobutylene- b-styrene copolymer, [1] has been researched and several problems arise when this coating is used. A alternative coating needs to be developed with several polymers forming from the main chain of the polymer. Several different bromination techniques have been researched to achieve the desired polymer to create the drug eluting coronary artery stent. This paper will describe the methods used.

Field Failure Analysis: Pinhole Mode of Failure of Polyolefin Pipes
A. Caratus, Z. Zhou, A. Masud, A.Chudnovsky, May 2007

Pinhole mode of polyolefin pipe failure in water distribution systems is commonly assumed to result from a sharp object impingement and attributed to inadequate installation practice. The cases of this mode of failure are investigated by direct observations of field failure combined with review of installation, service condition and stress analysis of the problem in question.

Additives for Improving Processing and Properties of Polylactic Acid
Zuzanna Cygan, Mohit Singh, Sri Seshadri, May 2007

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bioresin that is rapidly expanding into a variety of applications requiring a range of processing techniques including extrusion, calendaring, blow molding, and thermoforming. However, the low melt strength and brittle nature of the polymer provide challenges in processing and in the final product performance. We have demonstrated that the use of additives can improve processibility, melt strength and impact strength of PLA. The effect of additive type and loading levels on PLA resin properties and clarity will be presented.

Broadband Infrared Weld Strength as Compared to Other Mainstream Plastic Welding Techniques
Daniel D. Hershey, Scott Caldwell, Ken Nelson, Paul Rooney, May 2007

Three welding technologies are compared using a hydrostatic burst test as the testing standard. Vibration (VW) and Hotplate (HP) welding are used as benchmarks of performance for Broadband IR (IR) welding. An injection molded three-inch diameter sphere in various materials is welded and tested for all three processes. Pressure vessel characteristics and assumptions help to determine weld tensile strength to be compared against parent material tensile strength.

Benchmarking Thermoplastic Elastomers against Traditional Rubbers in Automotive Body Mount Applications
Travis Belz, Matthew Loeffler, May 2007

Traditionally, automotive body mounts have consisted of a steel casing with either a natural rubber, a blend of natural rubber to increase certain properties, or Butyl. In the past several years synthetic rubber technology has expanded and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) have been introduced. TPEs can retain the same properties of a natural rubber and reduce the cost of producing a body mount. This study comprises a comparison of thermoplastic elastomers to materials traditionally used in automotive body mount applications.

How TPV Out-Performs EPDM in Acoustic Properties for Automotive Sealing
James T. Browell, Shawn Jyawook, May 2007

A comparative analysis of TPV vs. EPDM with respect to noise reduction is examined for automotive weatherstrip body sealing applications. Specifically, EPDM sponge is compared with JyFlexTM, a TPV compound of equivalent stiffness. The study is performed using multiple acoustic tests (road and component), supported by FEA analysis as a diagnostic tool [1].

The Position of High Shear Material and its Effect on the Progressive Weld Line Strength of an Injection Molded Part
Kevin A. Welsh, Jason B. Willis, May 2007

This paper presents the results of a study on weld line strength as affected by materials, injection velocity, distance from the gate, and the strategic positioning of high sheared melt laminate prior to weld formation.

Strategies for Enhancing Cell Nucleation of Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) Foam
S.G. Kim, J.W.S. Lee, C.B. Park, M. Sain, May 2007

There is a growing interest in developing foamed TPO since replacing solid TPO will reduce material cost and fuel usage. In this paper, various talc contents are added into a TPO matrix, consisting of PP blended with a metallocene-based polyolefin elastomer. The effect of talc on TPO foams blown with N2 is studied using the batch foaming simulation system. The influence of N2 content and processing conditions on cell nucleation behaviour is discussed.

Laser Transmission Welding of Polyamide Tubes to Plates
Bobbye Baylis, Paul Daly, Hans Herfurth, May 2007

A major technical hurdle to overcome in making an all-plastic heat exchanger is welding tubes to the base plates of tanks. A heat exchanger that must remove a large quantity of heat quickly requires a large number of tubes, usually closely packed. Various techniques to achieve this have been investigated. The materials for tubes and tank plates were all polyamides; various combinations of PA 66, PA 612 and PPA were studied. Data on successful laser welds are presented.

Fractionated Crystallization of ?-Nucleated Polypropylene Microdroplets Produced from Nanolayers
D.S. Langhe, Y. Jin, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2007

Microdroplets of ?-phase polypropylene nucleated with the calcium salt of pimelic acid (Ca-Pim) and quinacridonequinone (QQ) were produced by layer breakup of Polypropylene (PP) / Polystyrene (PS) coextruded nanolayer films. These microdroplets were investigated using DSC and WAXD to study the effect of nucleating agent concentration and particle size distribution on fractionated crystallization. By using varying heating and cooling rates, the kinetics of crystallization of these microdroplets was studied.

Compressibilty of Resin, A New Look at Bulk Density
Adam J. Miloser, May 2007

The bulk density of a material greatly influences the total storage capacity in a silo. Although it has significant meaning, little research has been done in determining how compressive polymer materials are in their bulk states. The focus of this research is to investigate the changes in bulk density that occur with changes in pressure for several different polymer materials and determine the compressibility of these materials in the bulk state.

Analysis of the Stability of a Single-Screw Extrusion Process Using Graphical Analysis
John R. Wagner, Jr., Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2007

This paper analyzes the barrel pressures and motor current data acquired using a high-speed data acquisition system. Graphical analysis shows the relationship between screw design and screw speed.

What Every Plastics Professional Should Know about Products Liability- Part 1: An Overview of Sources of Products Liability Claims
Amad Tayebi, May 2007

This article, particularly tailored to cover plastics materials products, provides an overview of the three major theories under which a products liability action may be initiated, namely; negligence, breach of warranty and strict products liability. Negligence liability claim elements of duty owed by the manufacturer, breach of duty, causation and damages are discussed. Also, discussed are claims brought under the theories of breach of warranty and strict products liability.

Polybutene-1: A Review of an Old Polymer Produced with a New Technology and its Application to Flexible Packaging
Omar M. Boutni, May 2007

Polybutene-1 is a polyolefin with unique characteristics which distinguish it from PE and PP. They include: low heat of fusion, shear thinning, creep resistance and an intriguing polymorphic structure. Compatibility of PB-1 with PP and immiscibility with PE are often exploited to create convenient packaging which is easily opened by the consumer. This paper will review examples of the use of PB-1 in such applications and in the modification of the sealing initiation temperature of films.

Modeling of a Thin-Walled Filament Wound Tubing
A.B. Coffey, C.M. Ó Brádaigh, A.G. Gately, May 2007

There is a need in biomedical engineering for thin-walled, high-performance structures, which could be used as catheters, or as replacement implants in the body. Reinforced thermoplastic materials are becoming exceptionally important due to their ease of fabrication and reduced costs of manufacture. This paper outlines the theoretical modeling of a filament wound catheter and the associated outputs from which a catheter with specific required properties may be designed.

Rheological and Degradation Properties of Renewable Resource Polymer Blends
Jason D. Conrad, James P. Eickhoff, Graham M. Harrison, May 2007

Over the past decade, considerable interest has emerged in replacing conventional fossil fuel-based polymers with bio-derived polymers. Two bio-derived polymers that have garnered significant interest are PHA and PLA. In this study, shear and extensional rheology, coupled with degradation studies using GPC, are used to investigate the flow properties of blends of these two polymers. The development of blends with tailored flow and thermal/mechanical properties is pursued.

The Effect of Long-Chain Branching on Extensional Rheoelogy and its Correlation as a Predictor for Molecular Architecture
Christopher D. McGrady, Donald G. Baird, May 2007

The effect of sparse long-chain branching on extensional rheology is analyzed for metallocene-catalyzed polyethylene resins with varying degrees of branching. The onset of extensional strain hardening distinguishes the degrees of branching while such distinctions are not apparent in shear flow behavior.







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