SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Evaluation of Electrospun Polymer Coatings on 316 Stainless Steel Meshes
Lizabeth Caron, Melani Thomas, Katherine Youmans, May 2004

Electrospinning is an advantageous technique for applying porous coatings onto porous substrates, particularly those used for biomedical applications. This paper explores the feasibility of electrospinning polystyrene coatings onto stainless steel meshes with varying conditions. The effect of pore size and surface treatment on the morphology, thickness, and adhesion of the coatings obtained were examined.

Effects of the Molecular Characteristics of Polymers on the Electrospinning of Polystyrene
Shruti Pai, Najmuddin J. Gunja, May 2004

The influence of Mw and concentration on the electrospinning of polystyrene in ? and non-? solvents was studied. The jet breakdown phenomena were visually recorded for different molecular weights. The splitting and splaying of the jet is affected strongly by the molecular characteristics and is analyzed in terms of the dimensionless concentration [?]c.

The Effects of Blow-Up Ratio on Bi-Directional Tensile Properties of an Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer
Adam N. Toft, May 2004

The orientation of blown films corresponds to the blow-up ratio utilized to process the films. Ethylene acrylic acid copolymer was used to produce films with various blow-up ratios and thicknesses. Tensile testing these films in the machine and transverse direction will illustrate the correlation between blow-up ratio and tensile properties.

Formulation of Optimally Stabilized Poly(vinyl chloride) Systems with the Aid of the Chemiluminescnce Technique. Part I.
Yelena Kann, Norman Billingham, May 2004

The aspects of thermal stabilization of flexible PVC compounds are analyzed with the chemiluminescence technique. The intensity of the CL emitted during the degradation of PVC was found to be proportional to the concentration of build up polyenes. Ba/Zn carboxylates are differentiated by their polyene blocking ability.

Thermal Stabilization of PVC-Wood Composites
R. Bacaloglu, P. Kleinlauth, P. Frenkel, P. Reed, May 2004

The rate of PVC-Wood composites discoloration was used to estimate the effect of PVC heat stabilizers. The mechanical properties of these composites were strongly dependent on stabilizer efficiency and were improved by more effective stabilizers.

Rheological Properties of PVC/Wood-Flour Composites
B.L. Shah, L.M. Matuana, May 2004

Using a factorial design approach, this study examined the effect of the component materials on the viscoelastic properties of PVC/wood-flour composites. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the effects of wood flour content, acrylic modifier content and plasticizer content on the die swell ratio and viscosity of the composites measured on a conical twin screw extrusion capillary rheometer. The experimental results indicated that both the wood flour content and acrylic modifier content have significant effects on the die swell ratio and viscosity of PVC/wood-flour composites.

A Study of the Processing Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Multiple Recycled Rigid PVC
A.S. Ditta, A.J. Wilkinson, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, May 2004

This study focuses on the ability of U-PVC to be processed a number of times. Three different types of U-PVC were investigated: virgin lead stabilised and virgin calcium/zinc stabilised material and reground, 20 year old, post-consumer windows. Each material was extruded four times and samples taken at each stage for rheological and mechanical analysis.

Interrelationships between Fatigue and Creep Fracture in Poly(ethylene) and Poly(vinyl chloride)
Eric Baer, Anne Hiltner, Jiong Yu, Teresa E. Bernal-Lara, May 2004

Using a fracture mechanics approach, a dynamic fatigue methodology was developed to accurately predict creep fracture in both poly(ethylene) and poly(vinyl chloride). The predictive methodology applied to cases in which the crack propagated in either a stepwise or continuous manner. The effects of material variables such as molecular weight and impact modifier were also elucidated.

Modelling Impact Fracture and RCP Resistance of Thermoplastics from Cohesive Properties
Patrick S. Leevers, May 2004

Developers of thermoplastic materials for pressure pipe applications must design them to resist rapid crack propagation. However, they are usually able only to test them for resistance to impact. The hypothesis that both failure modes are dominated by adiabatic heating leads to good quantitative predictions for each property - and hence to an account of the relationship between them. Here, the model based on this hypothesis is extended to explore the influences on fracture resistance of molecular weight and of thermal property non-linearity.

Residual Strain Characterization Using an Embedded FFB Sensor: Measurements and Simulations
John Botsis, Fabiano Colpo, Laurent Humbert, May 2004

Residual strains in an epoxy specimen are investigated using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. A novel OLCR technique allows the direct reconstruction of the optical period and provides the strain distribution due to epoxy consolidation along the fibre. The experimental data show an excellent agreement with finite element simulations.

Designing Impact-Modified Polypropylene for Durability
C.P. Bosnyak, H.T. Pham, W. Zhou, A. Chudnovsky, May 2004

Polypropylene is increasingly being used as a structural load-bearing polymer in durable applications. Elastomer is usually added for impact toughness improvement but few studies address the selection of elastomer morphologies for resistance to failure due to load conditions over long time. This paper discusses the results of screening some polypropylene-elastomer blends for durability using a recently developed notch sensitivity methodology.

Failure Prediction in Polymer Composite, Sheet Metal Forming Dies
Young-Bin Park, Jonathan S. Colton, May 2004

This paper presents a systematic approach to predict damage in a sheet metal forming die fabricated from a composite (aluminum trihydrate-filled polyurethane). The dominant die failure mode is determined based on the mechanics governing the forming process, and the fatigue life is predicted. Both numerical simulations and experiments are performed to verify the method.

Investigating Environmental Stress Cracking with In-Situ Contact Angle Measurements
Peter J. Walsh, Alan J. Lesser, May 2004

This paper probes a hypothesis for initiation of environmental stress cracking (ESCR) based on a thermodynamic criterion for localized swelling induced by stress on the polymer. The system chosen for study is polycarbonate with oleic acid. An experimental technique involving contact angle measurements of a sessile drop as a function of stress is presented. A novel technique for contact angle measurements using refraction is also introduced.

Crystallization and Chemi-Crystallization of Recycled Photodegraded Polymers
J.R. White, I.H. Craig, C.K. Phua, May 2004

Injection molded bars have been made from blends containing recycled photodegraded polymers, then subjected to further ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Crystallinity measurements have been made at different depths from the exposed surface using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Complementary information in the form of molecular mass distributions has been obtained using gel permeation chromatography, and the crystallinity results are interpreted in terms of molecular scission and photo-initiated molecular defects.

The Design, Construction and Operation of Equipment to Investigate the Response of Open, Coloured, uPVC Profiles to Solar Gain
D.M. Kelly, B.P. McMahon, T. Edgar, T. Foreman, May 2004

Laminated and dark coloured uPVC profiles, when exposed to sunlight during normal use, may occasionally suffer deformation. To gain a greater understanding of this phenomenon, a number of test rigs were developed to recreate the temperature increase, through the use of infrared heating elements, to simulate varying intensities of solar radiation.

Considerations for Relating Artificial Laboratory and Natural Outdoor Weathering Durability Testing
Henry K. Hardcastle III, May 2004

This paper reviews considerations for linking laboratory and outdoor reference exposure weathering durability data. Laboratory considerations include designing experiments and developing predictive functions using xenon arc devices. Reference exposure considerations include monitoring meteorological and irradiance exposure variables in Florida and Arizona. Exposure data is compared for polycarbonate.

Failure of Plastic Plumbing Products
Paul Gramann, Antoine Rios, Bruce Davis, May 2004

Failures of plastic components are being seen more often in industrial, household and commercial settings. Many of these failures involve the transport of water and cause significant damage when they occur. These failures can be caused by improper material specification, bad design, over loading or incorrect molding conditions. Issues such as chemical resistance, environmental deterioration, geometric sensitivity, temperature dependence and aging are at times overlooked.

Reliability of Joining Plastic Parts
Jan Spoormaker, May 2004

Critical items in designs of plastic products are joints. The paper will deal with a number of design aspects about designing reliable plastic products. It will combine the results from our research in the field of stress concentrations, orientation and weld lines around holes, embrittlement of polymers, adhesion and environmental stress corrosion. A number of failures in practice will be presented.

Performance Characteristics of a Styrene-Isobutylene Block Copolymer Produced by Living Cationic Polymerization Technology
David Marshall, Hideki Ishikawa, Hideki Kawai, Taizo Aoyama, May 2004

A completely saturated styrene-isobutylene based thermoplastics elastomer has been produced at the industrial scale for the first time. Triblock (SIBS) of Mw range 65,000 to 100,000 have been produced. Due to the saturated main chain of polyisobutylene, these products are superior in heat rersistance, gas barrier properties and damping properties.

Performance Enhancing Crosslinked SBR Masterbatches for Thermoplastic Elastomers
Manoj Ajbani, Chris Kiehl, May 2004

Masterbatches of crosslinked solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene random elastomers (XL-SBR) and polypropylene (PP) were prepared and used for enhancing the oil resistance, compression stress relaxation performance, lowering gloss, and compression set of styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS)-based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds. Enhanced performance was achieved when SBR partly or substantially replaced the SEBS component. Modification of SEBS compounds in the Shore A range of 45-85 with the crosslinked SBR is discussed.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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