SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Polymer Treatment Techniques with Energetic Electrons
S.V. Nablo, May 2004

Fluidized bed handling of polymer powders and granules has been evaluated using electron energies in the 0.25-1.0 Mev. range. Performance data are presented for two pilot systems used in the development of this process typically operating in the product velocity range of 300-2000 meters per minute.The application of electron beam processors to the disinfection and sterilization of polymer containers provides an efficient route to the high speeds offered by modern filling equipment. Some results for the post treatment extraction studies in high density polyethylene and polyester bottles are presented.""

Electron-Beam Cross-Linking and Melting of UHMWPE for Hip and Knee Replacements
Orhun K. Muratoglu, May 2004

Wear and damage of polyethylene are the leading causes of in vivo failure of total hip and total knee arthroplasty. Increasing the resistance of polyethylene to wear and damage has been possible by radiation crosslinking and subsequent melting. Crosslinking improves the wear resistance of this polymer, while post-irradiation melting improves the long term oxidative stability, which is the primary precursor to polyethylene damage in vivo.

Continuous Process for Recycling of Polyurethane Foam
Sayata Ghose, A.I. Isayev, Ernst D. von Meerwall, May 2004

A continuous process for decrosslinking high resiliency polyurethane foam in an extruder with ultrasonic devices was developed. Rheological, structural and NMR relaxation and diffusion characterizations of decrosslinked foam were performed. The decrosslinked foam was blended with the virgin polyurethane rubber (PUR) and cured and the blend properties were investigated.

Study of the Processability of Post-Consumer and Post-Industrial Recycled High-Impact Polystyrene
Laura Luna, Yomilka Marcano, Maribel Marrero, Rosestela Perera, May 2004

In this work, the process of recycling high-impact polystyrene, both post-consumer and post-industrial, was studied. Blends of recycled/virgin materials were made and their MFI, mechanical properties and processability (thermoforming) were evaluated. Few differences in the behavior of the materials were found and their use as thermoformed packaging was ascertained.

An Investigation into Collection and Recycling of Blow Moulded Motor Oil Bottles in Australia
Syed Masood, Raja Raghavan, May 2004

This paper presents an investigation on the strategies to increase the post consumer HDPE recycling of extrusion blow molded oil containers in Australia and proposes a novel oil drain rack designed to drain out the residual oil effectively from the used oil containers, based on the requirements of the clients.

Combined Effects of Temperature and Sulfuric Acid Exposure on the Degradation of Nylon 6,6
Laura-lee Brown, V.T. Bui, H.W. Bonin, May 2004

Temperature effects combined with the chemical effects of sulfuric acid on Nylon 6,6 result in significant degradation of the mechanical performance of the material. Several techniques including weight gain studies and neutron activation analysis (NAA) have permitted the calculation of diffusion coefficients and activation energies of diffusion as well as the modelling of the degradation over extended periods of time.

Melting Aspects of Filled Compounds in a Modular Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Hochul Jung, James L. White, May 2004

Polymers containing fillers are an important in the polymer compounding industry. Melting mechanisms were studied in master batched polymer compounds using an intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. Calcium carbonate or aluminum powder was master batched with linear low density polyethylene. The compounds filled with particles have higher thermal conductivities and viscosities than neat polyethylene. We determined rates and mechanisms of melting of polyethylene compounds by removal and characterization of carcasses in the melting region.

Effect of Barium Sulphate on Rheological Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Metallocene Catalysed Polyethylenes used in Medical Devices
J. Godinho, I. Moore, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, May 2004

The incorporation of radiopaque barium sulphate (BaSO4) in medical tubing products is a challenge to extrusion processers. The effect of BaSO4 concentration (0-25% by weight) on the rheology and mechanical properties of three different metallocene catalysed polyethylenes were studied. The results show significant change in melt viscosity, tensile properties and phase transition (Tan ? max) with increase in BaSO4 concentration.

Ultrasonic and NIR Determination of Filler Concentration in Polymer Melt Flows in Extrusion
S. Barnes, G.D. Smith, E.C. Brown, H.G.M Edwards, P.D. Coates, May 2004

The work detailed here describes techniques for improving the accuracy of previous ultrasonic methods used in determining filler concentration (up to 20 wt.%) in polymer melt flows. Results from preliminary investigation into the application of in-line transmission Fourier Transform Near Infra red (FT-NIR) for determination of filler concentration real-time during processing is also presented.

Properties and Processing of Thermal Conductive Thermoplastics
Simon Amesöder, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, May 2004

The increase of at least 60 Vol.-% high thermal conductive filler in thermoplastics is an innovative approach for direct adjustment of a plastic part´s heat transfer. The filler content and high thermal conductivity affects directly the flow- and cooling-conditions during injection moulding. The paper presents basic influencing variables onto processing an part properties and shows new ideas for the construction and intelligent injection moulding processtechnology.

The Effect of PIB Molecular Weight on the Cling Characteristics of Polyethylene/PIB Films for Stretch and Cling Film Applications
C.M. Small, G.M. Mc Nally, W.R. Murphy, A.H. Clarke, May 2004

The effect of molecular weight on the migratory characteristics of polyisobutylene (PIB) additive from the bulk to the surface of a range of mono-layer and multi-layer extruded polyethylene films was analysed by FTIR-ATR and peel cling analysis. Migration rates were shown to be higher for low molecular weight additive and cling strength increased as the PIB molecular weight increased.

Hydrosilylation of Polypropylene through Reactive Extrusion
Mercy P. Bulsari, Costas Tzoganakis, Alex Penlidis, May 2004

Hydrosilylation of terminal double bonds in polypropylene (PP) was investigated in a twin-screw extruder. This process involved two steps: i) peroxide initiated degradation, which leads to the formation of terminal double bonds and ii) the addition of siloxane compound to such bonds. FTIR was used to follow the terminal double bond formation and siloxane incorporation. The shear viscosity at different temperatures and the contact angle of the hydrosilylated PP were evaluated. The reaction was found to decrease viscosity and to improve hydrophobicity.

Optimized Rheology and Density of Polyolefin Elastomers for Clarified Polypropylene Applications
Richard H. McGirk, Morgan M. Hughes, May 2004

Polyolefin elastomers based on metallocene technology are excellent impact modifiers for polypropylene. This study looks at how density and melt rheology of polyolefin elastomers affect clarity and impact performance of clarified polypropylenes with 2, 10, and 35 MFR. Optimum clarity and improved impact performance are achieved by matching rheology and density of polyolefin elastomers with polypropylene.

New Product Development: Benchmarking, Prototyping, & FEA Modeling
Josh Leonard, Justina Mikals, Pradipta Moulik, May 2004

Increasing demand for smaller products at lower costs has encouraged a rubber products company to develop a new product line made exclusively from plastic. Firestone Industrial Products Company approached new product development by benchmarking industry standards, prototyping duo-durometer polyurethane weld joints, and finite element analysis (FEA) modeling of a flex-member component.

Plastics Standards - A Great Benefit
Lawrence B. Ingram, May 2004

Suppliers, manufacturers, and consumers receive significant value from plastics standards. Standards are important in the marketplace because of their educational value, effects on research, product development and production. Improved electrical performance and evolving fire standards requirements necessitate changes to improve how wire and cable standards are developed. Technical people from materials suppliers, manufacturers, and users are needed to support these efforts. As plastic materials improve, the need to develop performance-based standards more rapidly is necessary.

Evaluation of Electrospun Polymer Coatings on 316 Stainless Steel Meshes
Lizabeth Caron, Melani Thomas, Katherine Youmans, May 2004

Electrospinning is an advantageous technique for applying porous coatings onto porous substrates, particularly those used for biomedical applications. This paper explores the feasibility of electrospinning polystyrene coatings onto stainless steel meshes with varying conditions. The effect of pore size and surface treatment on the morphology, thickness, and adhesion of the coatings obtained were examined.

Effects of the Molecular Characteristics of Polymers on the Electrospinning of Polystyrene
Shruti Pai, Najmuddin J. Gunja, May 2004

The influence of Mw and concentration on the electrospinning of polystyrene in ? and non-? solvents was studied. The jet breakdown phenomena were visually recorded for different molecular weights. The splitting and splaying of the jet is affected strongly by the molecular characteristics and is analyzed in terms of the dimensionless concentration [?]c.

The Effects of Blow-Up Ratio on Bi-Directional Tensile Properties of an Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer
Adam N. Toft, May 2004

The orientation of blown films corresponds to the blow-up ratio utilized to process the films. Ethylene acrylic acid copolymer was used to produce films with various blow-up ratios and thicknesses. Tensile testing these films in the machine and transverse direction will illustrate the correlation between blow-up ratio and tensile properties.

Formulation of Optimally Stabilized Poly(vinyl chloride) Systems with the Aid of the Chemiluminescnce Technique. Part I.
Yelena Kann, Norman Billingham, May 2004

The aspects of thermal stabilization of flexible PVC compounds are analyzed with the chemiluminescence technique. The intensity of the CL emitted during the degradation of PVC was found to be proportional to the concentration of build up polyenes. Ba/Zn carboxylates are differentiated by their polyene blocking ability.

Thermal Stabilization of PVC-Wood Composites
R. Bacaloglu, P. Kleinlauth, P. Frenkel, P. Reed, May 2004

The rate of PVC-Wood composites discoloration was used to estimate the effect of PVC heat stabilizers. The mechanical properties of these composites were strongly dependent on stabilizer efficiency and were improved by more effective stabilizers.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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