SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Bluetooth Wireless Technology Enables New Applications
Debbie Hauser, May 2004

Bluetooth, the most widespread of the new wireless communications standards, enables electronic devices to talk amongst themselves. This capability has not only created the demand for many new electronic products, but has pushed value-added product development for plastics in the automotive, healthcare, appliance and computer accessories markets. This presentation will outline what the Bluetooth technology is, new applications, market projections, and considerations for designers as well as resin suppliers.

Preventing Failure by Design: A Case Study in the Development of a Medical Device
Lucyanne Carmona, Eric Moskala, May 2004

Preventing failure in a plastic medical device requires a thorough understanding of the key fitness for use criteria. This paper explores a case study of copolyester resin development for a device requiring clarity, toughness, chemical resistance, solvent bonding, printability, and ethylene oxide and gamma sterilization. Analyses included molecular weight, modulated DSC, fractography and functional testing.

An Investigation into Fracture Toughness Testing of Dental Luting Cements Using Various Methods
D. Leonard, G. McHenry, C.A. Mitchell, J.F. Orr, May 2004

Various types of luting cements are used for fixation in dentistry. Failure through fracture is a significant issue with these materials. Several fracture toughness tests have been developed to characterise dental luting cements. Among them are the Chevron-Notch Short-Rod and Mixed-Mode Sandwich tests. In this study these two techniques are applied to a dental luting cement and from the results of the testing, conclusions are drawn on what they can determine regarding a material's properties.

Mechanical and Thermal Characterization for Sterilized Medical Elastomers
Tahua Yang, Sherwin Shang, Lecon Woo, Craig Sandford, May 2004

We have applied thermal, mechanical, and rheological techniques in the product development for medical elastomers with success. In this presentation, examples of actual product application will be used to illustrate the utility of these techniques and to demonstrate the derived information that was used in developing successful elastomeric related medical products.

Thermal Characterization for Radiation Treated Medical Products
Sherwin Shang, Tahua Yang, Lecon Woo, Craig Sandford, May 2004

A key feature for medical products is the need to sterilize products prior to release. However, the radiation dose, which disrupts DNA sequences in bioburdens, can also damage and alter polymer properties in substantial ways. Contrary to known degradations, there are also property enhancements through irradiation. In this presentation, both property degradation and enhancement will be illustrated with actual examples.

Aspects of Micromoulding Polymers for Medical Applications
M.T. Martyn, B. Whiteside, P.D. Coates, P.S. Allan, G. Greenway, P. Hornsby, May 2004

Micromoulding is maturing as a viable technology used in the manufacture of intricate, minute, 3d plastic components. There still remains a knowledge gap in understanding the effects of processing on product properties. Studies conducted within our laboratories reveal that polymer melts are exposed to extremely high shear and heat transfer rates in the process. These process conditions influence product morphology and properties.

Rapid Prototyping to Rapid Manufacturing
Anthony J. Sexton, May 2004

Since its inception, Rapid Prototyping (RP) has undergone many changes and enhancements in both materials and systems. One of these system enhancements is the Stereolithography (SLA) small beam laser, which was proposed to 3-D Systems Inc. in the summer of 1993.

Fabrication and Analysis of Plastic Hypodermic Needles
Hoyeon Kim, Jonathan S. Colton, May 2004

This paper presents the fabrication of plastic hypodermic needles using micro-injection molding and the analyses of their buckling behavior. As a needle cannula is a thin-walled column (here 0.7 mm outer diameter and 0.15 mm thick), it is vulnerable to buckling. The buckling behavior is characterized through numerical simulations and experiments.

Ultrasonic Microforging for Production of Microscale Parts with Nanoscale Features
Naveen Huilgol, Charles L. Thomas, May 2004

An ultrasonic horn is used to investigate a manufacturing technique to produce microscale polymeric parts using continuous wave ultrasound. This technique of microforging has a potential to produce microscale parts in production quantities. It should be capable of replicating nanoscale features on the microscale part. Potential advantages of microforging include speed of production and easy handling of the parts compared to microinjection molding techniques.

Radiation Processing of Polymers: The Current Status and Prospects for the Future
David R. Kerluke, Song Cheng, May 2004

Radiation processing has been used for almost 50 years to improve both bulk and surface properties of polymer resins and formed components. This session will examine several specific applications of commercial radiation processing in depth. This presentation will provide background for this session.

Novel Resins through the Pre-Irradiation Modification of Polyethylenes
T.A. du Plessis, H. Seute, May 2004

The presentation describes the development of a new family of novel polymers made through the ionizing radiation modification of polyethylenes prior to the conversion thereof into end products.

Polymer Treatment Techniques with Energetic Electrons
S.V. Nablo, May 2004

Fluidized bed handling of polymer powders and granules has been evaluated using electron energies in the 0.25-1.0 Mev. range. Performance data are presented for two pilot systems used in the development of this process typically operating in the product velocity range of 300-2000 meters per minute.The application of electron beam processors to the disinfection and sterilization of polymer containers provides an efficient route to the high speeds offered by modern filling equipment. Some results for the post treatment extraction studies in high density polyethylene and polyester bottles are presented.""

Electron-Beam Cross-Linking and Melting of UHMWPE for Hip and Knee Replacements
Orhun K. Muratoglu, May 2004

Wear and damage of polyethylene are the leading causes of in vivo failure of total hip and total knee arthroplasty. Increasing the resistance of polyethylene to wear and damage has been possible by radiation crosslinking and subsequent melting. Crosslinking improves the wear resistance of this polymer, while post-irradiation melting improves the long term oxidative stability, which is the primary precursor to polyethylene damage in vivo.

Continuous Process for Recycling of Polyurethane Foam
Sayata Ghose, A.I. Isayev, Ernst D. von Meerwall, May 2004

A continuous process for decrosslinking high resiliency polyurethane foam in an extruder with ultrasonic devices was developed. Rheological, structural and NMR relaxation and diffusion characterizations of decrosslinked foam were performed. The decrosslinked foam was blended with the virgin polyurethane rubber (PUR) and cured and the blend properties were investigated.

Study of the Processability of Post-Consumer and Post-Industrial Recycled High-Impact Polystyrene
Laura Luna, Yomilka Marcano, Maribel Marrero, Rosestela Perera, May 2004

In this work, the process of recycling high-impact polystyrene, both post-consumer and post-industrial, was studied. Blends of recycled/virgin materials were made and their MFI, mechanical properties and processability (thermoforming) were evaluated. Few differences in the behavior of the materials were found and their use as thermoformed packaging was ascertained.

An Investigation into Collection and Recycling of Blow Moulded Motor Oil Bottles in Australia
Syed Masood, Raja Raghavan, May 2004

This paper presents an investigation on the strategies to increase the post consumer HDPE recycling of extrusion blow molded oil containers in Australia and proposes a novel oil drain rack designed to drain out the residual oil effectively from the used oil containers, based on the requirements of the clients.

Combined Effects of Temperature and Sulfuric Acid Exposure on the Degradation of Nylon 6,6
Laura-lee Brown, V.T. Bui, H.W. Bonin, May 2004

Temperature effects combined with the chemical effects of sulfuric acid on Nylon 6,6 result in significant degradation of the mechanical performance of the material. Several techniques including weight gain studies and neutron activation analysis (NAA) have permitted the calculation of diffusion coefficients and activation energies of diffusion as well as the modelling of the degradation over extended periods of time.

Melting Aspects of Filled Compounds in a Modular Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Hochul Jung, James L. White, May 2004

Polymers containing fillers are an important in the polymer compounding industry. Melting mechanisms were studied in master batched polymer compounds using an intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. Calcium carbonate or aluminum powder was master batched with linear low density polyethylene. The compounds filled with particles have higher thermal conductivities and viscosities than neat polyethylene. We determined rates and mechanisms of melting of polyethylene compounds by removal and characterization of carcasses in the melting region.

Effect of Barium Sulphate on Rheological Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Metallocene Catalysed Polyethylenes used in Medical Devices
J. Godinho, I. Moore, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, May 2004

The incorporation of radiopaque barium sulphate (BaSO4) in medical tubing products is a challenge to extrusion processers. The effect of BaSO4 concentration (0-25% by weight) on the rheology and mechanical properties of three different metallocene catalysed polyethylenes were studied. The results show significant change in melt viscosity, tensile properties and phase transition (Tan ? max) with increase in BaSO4 concentration.

Ultrasonic and NIR Determination of Filler Concentration in Polymer Melt Flows in Extrusion
S. Barnes, G.D. Smith, E.C. Brown, H.G.M Edwards, P.D. Coates, May 2004

The work detailed here describes techniques for improving the accuracy of previous ultrasonic methods used in determining filler concentration (up to 20 wt.%) in polymer melt flows. Results from preliminary investigation into the application of in-line transmission Fourier Transform Near Infra red (FT-NIR) for determination of filler concentration real-time during processing is also presented.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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