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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Evaluation of Pulsed Cooling in Injection Mould Tools
Benjamin A. McCalla, Peter S. Allan, Peter H. Hornsby, Andrew G. Smith, Luiz Wrobel, May 2004
The use of a pulsed supply of a cooling medium to a mould tool has been shown to have benefits on the cycle time and energy consumption in the injection moulding process. Three papers at the ANTEC meeting last year reported on this technology. A definitive explanation for the effects reported was not submitted at that time. Since that meeting further experimental work has been carried out to compare direct cooling with the pulsed cooling technology. The results to be presented will also show the effects of thermally conductive additives on the injection moulding cycle time. Results from the first stage of a study to model the functions of pulsed cooling in injection moulding will also be discussed.
Electrically Conductive Nano-Composites in Powder Injection Molding
Ankur Maheshwari, Stephen P. McCarthy, May 2004
The objective of this paper was to study the effect of different process parameters on the conductivity of injection molded graphite samples and stainless steel samples. Different percentages of graphite powder and binder were mixed using a premixer. The mixture then was grinded into small granules; these granules were then injection molded to flexural bars. The injection molded flexural bars were then debinded at different times and temperatures. Conductivity testing was conducted on the bars and volume resistance was calculated for all samples. The effect of powder/binder concentration, debinding time and debinding temperature was studied on the conductivity of the samples. As the powder concentration was increased in the sample the volume resistance of the sample decreased. Also, with the increase in debinding time and temperature there was a considerable decrease in volume resistance.
Simulation of Optical Media Molding
Bingfeng Fan, David Kazmer, May 2004
A hybrid finite element/finite difference method is employed to solve the temperature and pressure fields of an injection-compression molding process using a non-isothermal compressible flow model. The process simulation is coupled with a thermal viscoelastic material model to predict residual stress, warpage, and birefringence. A finite element analysis is formulated using axisymmetric plate elements to simulate the thermal stress and warpage. Flow and thermally induced birefringence is calculated by applying the stress-optical rule to the predicted residual stress. Experimental validation of injection-compression molded CD-R substrates shows that the simulation well predicts the process and part qualities under various processing conditions.
Flow Analysis of the In-Mold Coating (IMC) Process for Thermoplastic Parts
Xu Chen, Jose M. Castro, Elliott J. Straus, May 2004
In-mold coating (IMC) is carried out by injecting a liquid low viscosity thermoset material onto the surface of the thermoplastic substrate while it is still in the mold. The coating will then solidify and adhere to the substrate. IMC process is being integrated with conventional thermoplastic injection molding to improve the part surface quality and to protect it from outdoor exposure. This paper presents a Hele-Shaw based mathematical model to simulate the coating flow during the IMC process. Power-law viscosity model is employed to describe the rheological behavior of the coating material. The continuous deformation of the thermoplastic substrate caused by the coating injection is analyzed by means of the PVT relationship of the substrate. The corresponding computer code based on the Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CV/FEM) has been developed to predict the fill pattern and pressure distribution during the coating flow. The predicted results have been verified by experiments.
Accelerated Weathering Characteristics of Inorganic Pigments in Various Thermoplastic Applications Systems
James E. Rediske, May 2004
Iron oxide pigments have been around as a coloring agent for thousands of years. Despite this amazing longevity the question is frequently asked, “What is the UV stability of your iron oxide?” This question has always been answered in a lighthearted if somewhat cynical fashion, “Has your car ever spontaneously unrusted while sitting in your driveway?”The goal of the work represented by this paper is to try to remove the comedic quality of the answer by establishing an experimental set of parameters and providing a quantitative response to this question.
Multi Functional Colorants for LDPE Articles
Martin T. Price, Jeffrey M. Cosman, Alexander L. Neymark, May 2004
Functional performance of slip and release additives was investigated in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pigmented injection molded plaques. Coefficient of friction and adhesion studies were used to characterize migration of slip agents to the polymer surface and interaction between composition components. An attempt was made to combine different additives to achieve optimum slip performance while minimizing organoleptic impact of packaging material.
Is Trouble-Free Colored Wire and Cable Possible?
Robert S. Trinklein, May 2004
Color plays a critical role in the manufacture of wire and cable products. Colors are frequently created in wire and cable products through the use of color concentrates. There are some misunderstandings about how the concentrates affect the finished products. Because color accounts for a relatively tiny part of a compound, for example, some manufacturers neglect its potential influence on their products. Others make color concentrates their first suspect when problems occur.
Computer Simulation of 3D Short Fiber Orientation in Injection Molding
Wen-Hsien Yang, David C. Hsu, Venny Yang, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2004
This paper develops a true three-dimensional numerical approach to simulating the melt filling and fiber orientation in injection-molded part of complex geometry. An efficient finite volume method is combined with VOF method to solve the melt flow during molding. The fiber orientation distribution is described by the second-order orientation tensors. The three-dimensional orientation of fibers is determined through the Folgar-Tucker equation, in which an interaction coefficient is introduced to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Several example cases are simulated to verify the predicted melt front advancement and the corresponding fiber orientation. An industrial case with complex geometry is also studied to illustrate the capability of the proposed methodology.
Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Mold Cooling Design for Injection Molding
Rong-Yeu Chang, Wen-Hsien Yang, David C.Hsu, Venny Yang, May 2004
Mold cooling system design in injection molding is of great importance because it is crucial not only to reduce molding cycle time but also to improve part quality. Traditional mold cooling analysis is based on the hybrid finite-difference/ boundary element (FD/BEM) approach. This approach was developed to accommodate the conventional 2.5D Hele-Shaw flow-based shell element model. In this paper, a true three-dimensional mold cooling analysis approach is developed. A fully tree-dimensional numerical analysis faithfully simulates the effects of part geometry, cooling system design, and ambient temperature on the solidification of the part. Finite volume method (FVM) is adopted as the numerical engine of the new approach. This developed approach is proved from numerical experiments to be a cost-effective method for true 3D simulation in injection mold cooling analysis.
Optimization of the Warpage of Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Influencing the Fiber Orientation
R. Haag, May 2004
This paper describes a new commercial simulation tool to simulate the injection molding process and the warpage of fiber reinforced thermoplastics considering the anisotropic behavior. A full 3D formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations with a VOF algorithm for the description of the free surface motion is used to simulate the filling process. The transport of the fiber orientation is calculated by the Folgar-Tucker equation using a hybrid closure approximation. The resulting fiber orientation tensor is used for the calculation of the anisotropic mechanical behavior. The Halpin-Tsai equations provide the anisotropic material data for the calculation. Through an real-life example it will be shown that the knowledge of the fiber orientation can be used to optimize the runner system in order to change the local fiber orientation and thereby to optimize the warpage of the part.
Effect of Colorant Carriers on Strength of Weld Lines in Polypropylene
G. Samuel Brockway, Thomas R. Ellis, May 2004
In this study, the effects of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) colorant carriers for various levels of loading on the short-term strength of weld lines in homopolymer polypropylene are quantified. Tensile bars (“dog bones”) were molded with an intentional weld line in the gauge length of the bars for a variety of material mixes. When tested at room temperature, the colorants with the polyethylene carrier drastically reduced the tensile elongation of the bars when compared with an unpigmented sample. The reduction was so severe that the PE-carrier specimens broke before yielding, thus exhibiting significant loss of strength. Samples of PP having the colorant with the PP carrier, while breaking at significantly lower elongation than their unpigmented counterparts, showed no reduction in weld-line strength because they yielded. Elevated temperature results are less dramatic, the unpigmented and PP-colorant samples yielded and stretched beyond 450%, while three-fifths of the PE-colorant specimens exhibited a yield. A PP co-polymer with PP-based colorant was also studied. In addition, slow strain-rate data is presented for a few compounds, and the rate / temperature dependence is discussed. Finally, several samples were aged at elevated temperature and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The results showed reductions in elongation but not weld-line strength.
The Influence of Mould Temperature and Polymer Structure on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Metallocene Catalysed LLDPEs
S. Walker, G. Mc Nally, P.J. Martin, May 2004
A number of metallocene and conventional LLDPEs, with different material properties, were injection moulded over four different mould temperatures. An assessment of the effect of cooling rate and polymer properties on the mechanical performance of the specimens was conducted to establish any significant correlations. Rheological studies of the materials under high shear rates experienced in injection moulding, was performed to determine flow characteristics of the materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal Analysis (DMTA) were used to study the influence of the comonomer type and degree of branching on the properties of the materials.
Study of Hue Variation in Different Extrusion Applications
A. Venkateshwar, S. Manoj Kumar, May 2004
Color Masterbatches are widely used in all types of Applications such as Injection Molding, Blow Molding, Blown-Film Extrusion, Monofilaments, Rafia tapes, etc. This paper is the study done to facilitate faster matching and understand the hue variation in different color with different extrusion applications. Hue variation is studied keeping Injection Molding Application as Standard.
Oxidative Photodegradation of Colored LLDPE
Chijioke F. Iwu, Onyekachi M. Egbuhuzor, May 2004
The oxidative photodegradation of colored linear low density Polyethylene (LLDPE) have been studied. Extruded colored films were exposed to natural tropical sunlight for times ranging up to three months simultaneously with control films. Pigment masterbatches had been incorporated into the colored films by means of the now effective masterbatching process. The photooxidized films were analyzed with respect to the pigment effects. Results indicate considerable modifications on the LLDPE properties; the extent of which depends on the nature and composition of the applied pigments.
Effect of the Masterbatch Carrier on the Pigment Dispersion and Mechanical Properties of Colored Polyolefins
M.C. Cramez, M.J. Oliveira, May 2004
Polyethylene and polybutene were used as carriers to produce two color concentrates with a high amount of organic pigments. Different colored plastic products, namely polyethylene film and polypropylene injection molded parts, were produced using both masterbatches. The polybutene masterbatch promotes a better dispersion of the pigment and improves the toughness of injection molded polypropylene.
The Effect of Nitrogen Purging on Degradation during Reprocessing in Injection Molding
J.S. Archer, S.H. Dillman, May 2004
This study investigated the effect of nitrogen purging in the material hopper on the melt flow index (MFI), residual oxidative induction time (OIT), color and impact strength of impact modified polypropylene copolymer and polycarbonate during repeated reprocessing through an injection molder. Heat history had the expected effect of increasing MFI, changing color and decreasing impact strength for both resins and decreasing OIT in polypropylene. In polypropylene nitrogen purging significantly reduced the changes in MFI and OIT resulting from repeated reprocessing. However, nitrogen purging did not have a significant effect on the properties of polycarbonate, probably due to its inherent resistance to oxidative degradation.
The Effect of Phthalocyanine Pigment on the Microstructural and Mechanical Performance of Propylene-Ethylene Block Copolymer
I.F.M Major, G.M. McNally, May 2004
Injection moulded samples of a commercial propylene-ethylene block copolymer containing 0% - 8% phthalocyanine blue pigment were prepared using a range of mould temperatures (40°C - 80°C). Mechanical and thermal analysis showed progressive increase in tensile modulus, storage modulus (E’) and glass transition temperature (Tg) with increase in pigment loading. However, impact strength of the pigmented copolymer decreased progressively with increase in pigment loading and mould temperature. Thermal analysis of the samples shows that changes in crystalline melting phase ?H, and activation energies Ea for phase relaxations (DMTA) may account for the overall decrease in impact performance of the pigmented copolymer.
Microcellular Nanocomposite Injection Molding Process
Mingjun Yuan, Lih-Sheng Turng, Rick Spindler, Daniel Caulfield, Chris Hunt, May 2004
This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Effects of processing conditions on the mechanical properties and microstructures have been studied. The results show that the supercritical fluid (N2) helps to further exfoliate and uniformly disperse the nano-clays in the matrix during the course of molding process. Compared to the corresponding base polyamide microcellular parts, the microcellular nanocomposites exhibit better cell structures and cell distributions as well as better mechanical properties.
Applications of Polyamide/Cellulose Fiber/Wollastonite Composites for Microcellular Injection Molding
Herman Winata, Lih-Sheng Turng, Daniel F. Caulfield, Tom Kuster, Rick Spindler, Rod Jacobson, May 2004
In this study, a cellulose-fiber-reinforced Polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, a hybrid composite (PA- 6/cellulose/Wollastonite), and the neat PA-6 resin were injection molded into ASTM test–bar samples with conventional and microcellular injection molding. The impact and tensile strengths of molded samples were measured and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were taken at the fracture surfaces. The effects of filler systems and the introduction of microcellular structure on the impact and tensile strengths were studied. It was found that the cellulose fibers and the cellulose/Wollastonite fillers improve the tensile strength and tensile modulus. In addition, the microcellular injection molded neat resin exhibits a higher impact strength than that of the conventionally molded solid part. However, a reduction in tensile strength was observed with both of the filled composites when molded with microcellular injection molding. This could be attributed to microcells at the interface of cellulose fibers and the polymer matrix.
Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Adjacent Flow Weldline by SENB Method
Kohji Yamada, Kiyotaka Tomari, Toshihiko Harada, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2004
Fracture toughness of adjacent flow weldline occurring around an obstructive pin was evaluated by single edge notched bend (SENB) method. The fracture toughness near the pin was higher than any other part of the weldline. The fracture toughness decreased drastically along the weldline and then increased gradually toward the end of the specimen. These characteristic features could be explained by flow-induced molecular orientation at the weldline interface. The material flow beside the pin stopped in the middle of the filling process. Molecular orientation parallel to the weldline due to the fountain flow relaxed since no shear stress affected the area, resulting in high molecular entanglement across the weldline. On the contrary, at the downstream side the material kept on flowing during the filling process. This indicated that the molecular orientation could not relax due to flow-induced stress during the process. The magnitude of these two areas was dependent on the position of first collision point (FCP) at which two melt fronts collided first behind the pin. The V-notch depth on the surface of the specimens was also dependent on the distance from FCP.

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