SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Optimum Content of Clay for Microcellular LDPE/Clay Nanocomposite Foams Blown with CO2
K.H. Wang, Y.H. Lee, C.B. Park, May 2004

This research investigates the optimum content of clay required to achieve microcellular LDPE/clay nanocomposite foams blown with CO2. The effects of clay content and clay dispersion on cell morphology are thoroughly investigated. Less than 0.1 wt% of clay addition produces a microcellular structure with a cell density of over 109 cells/cm3 and a cell size of about 5 ?m.

Methods of Expanding Polystyrene to Ultra Low-Density Foam
Chung P. Park, May 2004

Ultra low-density expanded polystyrene is obtained by an optimum formulation or by extended exposure to atmospheric steam. A polystyrene resin is rheologically modified to have both ease of flow and resistance against collapse. The collapse resistance is imparted either by light crosslinking of the resin with a silane compound or by adding a small amount of polyphenylene ether. Extended exposure to steam permits continuous extension of cell walls by reducing orientation. An expanded polystyrene loose fill material having an expansion ratio exceeding 200 has been achieved.

Torsion Properties of Cylindrical Polymer Foams
Denis Rodrigue, Yan Pelletier, Ryan Gosselin, May 2004

Solid state viscoelastic shear moduli (G' and G) of cylindrical polymer foams were measured as a function of frequency. Extruded samples were produced via a cylindrical die to obtain foams of various morphologies. To perform the shear measurements a modification of the torsion rectangular setup on an ARES rheometer was made. The setup calibration and test conditions are presented. The data are discussed and compared to simple models taken from the literature."

Prediction of Density Variation in Thick Microcellular Sheets
Krishna Nadella, Farhad Mehta, Vipin Kumar, Wei Li, May 2004

Earlier a process to produce thick flat microcellular sheets, in the 3 - 15 mm range for a number of thermoplastics such as PMMA, PS, ABS and PC was reported. In this paper a model to predict the density variation across the thickness of microcellular sheet is presented. This model builds on both the steady-state mass balance model and the skin thickness model for the solid-state microcellular process. The model is applied to predict density variation and mean density in a 1.5 mm thick microcellular PC and preliminary results are presented.

Effects of Nano-Particles on Density Reduction and Cell Morphology of Extruded mPE/Wood-Fiber/Nano Composites
G. Guo, K.H. Wang, C.B. Park, Y.S. Kim, G. Li, May 2004

This paper investigates the effects of nano-particles on cell morphology and foam expansion in the extrusion foaming of mPE/wood-fiber/nano-composites with a chemical blowing agent. The results indicate that the addition of clay generally decreases cell size, increases cell density and facilitates foam expansion. Furthermore, the foam material with added clay shows good char formation when it is burned.

Increase of Open-Cell Content by Plasticizing the Soft Regions with a Secondary Blowing Agent
Patrick C. Lee, Hani E. Naguib, Chul B. Park, Jin Wang, May 2004

This paper describes the effects of n-butane mixed with primary CO2 as a secondary blowing agent on cellpopulation densities, volume expansion ratios, and open-cell contents of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and LDPE/polystyrene (PS) blends in extrusion. With the plasticizing effect of n-butane, a high open-cell content (up to 100%) over a wide range of processing temperatures was successfully achieved.

Solid-State Polyimide Foaming from Powder Precursors: Effect of Particle Morphology on the Diffusive Phenomena
Camilo I. Cano, R. Byron Pipes, May 2004

Solid-state foaming of polyimide powder precursors is studied by examining concurrent and competitive phenomena that determine the morphology and physical properties of the foam unit cell. Effects of particle size and shape on bubble nucleation and growth will be addressed.

Porous Polystyrene Foam Produced at Supercritical Conditions
Chang-Ming Wong, Wen-Chung Liang, Chih-Hung Ying, Ming-Lang Hung, May 2004

This work examines four polystyrene (PS) resins and PS resins with fillers. The materials .are processed into sheets and then the sheets are foamed at various supercritical conditions. The morphology of foam is studied and a large porous PS foam is also developed for a vacuum insulation panel.

Effects of CO2 Content on the Expansion Behaviors of PS Foams
Xiang Xu, Donglai Xu, Chul B. Park, May 2004

This paper discusses the effects of the blowing-agent content on the expansion behaviours of PS foams blown with CO2. Three groups of interchangeable filamentary dies were used to investigate the effect of the die geometry on the expansion ratio. A high CO2 content would be favourable to increase the expansion ratio. But the high CO2 content increased the solubility pressure and the amount of premature cell growth. When the amount of premature cell-growth exceeded a critical value, the expansion ratios were dramatically decreased, even at the optimum temperature.

Entrained Gas Process for Injection Molding
Jingyi Xu, May 2004

Entrained gas for injection molding, such as structural foam, microcellular foam, gas assist processing, has some common technical issues and safety concerns which are important to be fully understood for a safety system, and acceptable processing conditions. Several major issues are addressed and analyzed for machine and mold design, part design and handling.

Effects of Incorporating Recycled HDPE to Virgin HDPE and LDPE to Produce Tubular Film
José B. Sánchez, Erika Galvis, Rosalina Grimaud, Rosestela Perera, May 2004

This work presents the effects of incorporating post-consumer and post-industrial recycled HDPE to their virgin counterparts and to LDPE in different contents to produce tubular film for packaging. Tensile, surface and optical properties for each blend were measured.A reduction in the HDPEs blends physical properties and an increment in those of the LDPE/recycled HDPE blends were obtained as the recycled HDPE component was increased.

Nylon 66 - Maleated EPDM Polyblends
Rudolph D. Deanin, Sumit Mathur, May 2004

Nylon 66 was blended with maleated EPDM containing 0.5% of maleic anhydride. At 25% of maleated EPDM, impact strength increased 8-fold. On the other hand, modulus, strength, and DTUL decreased. The data suggested that the blend was too miscible, and might be improved by decreasing the maleic anhydride content to enhance phase separation.

Short Fiber Glass Reinforcement of Ductile Resins
Robert R. Gallucci, May 2004

In three ductile resins, polyphenylene ether sulfone (PPSU), a polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC-ABS) blend and polycarbonate-polybutylene terephthalate blends (PC-PBT) use of a fiberglass coating that has little adhesion (non-bonding) to the resin matrix give superior impact strength compared to a traditional fiber coating with good matrix adhesion. The non-bonding glass gives reduced flexural and tensile strength but has comparable modulus to the traditional glass fibers with good matrix adhesion.

A Study on Processing and Characterization of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced ABS/Nylon 6 Blends
Guralp Ozkoc, Goknur Bayram, Erdal Bayramli, May 2004

The properties of short glass fiber reinforced poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)/Nylon 6 (ABS/PA6) blends were studied using the interfacial adhesion approach. Work of adhesion and interlaminar shear strength values were calculated from experimentally determined interfacial tensions and short beam flexural tests. APS was selected as the coupling agent for the glass fibers because of its compatibility with PA6. Increasing wt% of the PA6 in the short glass fiber reinforced blend increased the tensile strength and tensile modulus.

Compounding Order and Mechanical Properties in PP/PE/Talc Compound
T. Okumura, H. Hamada, May 2004

Inorganic fillers are widely used to improve various properties of polymer materials. The dispersion of inorganic filler would undeniably influence the mechanical properties of a polymer compound. This paper describes the effect of the compounding order on mechanical properties of the PP/HDPE/Talc compounds which were prepared by changing the compounding order during the polymer compounding process. Consequently, the bending modulus and the impact strength of compound was improved, compared to that of general compounding.

Influence of Type of Filler on Natural Rubber Properties
M. Hernández, M. Ichazo, J. González, C. Albano, May 2004

Natural Rubber compounds with 15 phr filler (silica, wood flour and carbon black) were evaluated. Maximum torque, modulus, hardness and compression set increased when filler was present. Scorch time and curing time were also increased. A good reinforcement effect on the NR vulcanizate was observed when silica was used. There seemed to be very little influence of filler nature and particle size on properties studied; therefore, woodflour appears as an alternative and environment friendly filler.

The Performance of Polyvinyl Chloride / Thermoplastic Polyurethane Blends
D.C. McConnell, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, May 2004

Two grades of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), one polyester and one polyether based, were blended with two grades of PVC with different K-values of 56 and 71. Mechanical analysis showed that impact strength and elongation at break improved significantly, and the tensile and flexural modulus decreased with progressive increase in TPU content. DMTA results suggested partial miscibility between the two polymers. The performance of the blends was shown to be more dependent on the PVC/TPU percentage content rather than the PVC or TPU type.

Steel Wire Reinforced Plastic Composite Pipe
L.J. Broutman, Dale B. Edwards, B.D. Agarwal, May 2004

Steel wire reinforced polyethylene composite pipelines are a new technology product. The system is used for transport of oil, water, gas, and chemicals. This paper explains its new design concepts including micro-mechanics of load sharing and stress transfer. Recent test results will be reported to bring out its advantages over common plastic pipe and steel pipe.

The Effects of High Stress and Material Constraint on the Fracture Appearance of a Polyethylene Liner Pipe
Dale B. Edwards, Robert Miller, May 2004

This study involves a failure analysis on polyethylene liner pipes that had been installed as a corrosion protection liner in a high-pressure steel pipeline, operated at pressures up to 1500 psig. The peculiar fracture surface features are attributed to the stresses applied in service and to the geometry of the host pipe. The field failure times correlated extremely well with the published stress-rupture performance of the material.

POLYTRAC© Full Traceability in PE Valve Manufacturing
Richard W. Conley, May 2004

The Who, What, When and Where of every manufacturing process is critical to the longterm performance of polyethylene (PE) valves in natural gas distribution service. To obtain and archive this knowledge about every process, Kerotest developed POLYTRAC©, a full forward and backward traceability program for the POLYBALL™ line of PE ball valves. With full traceability, one has the maximum assurance that all manufacturing processes are under control and the highest quality valve is being produced.

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