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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
RAPID DETERMINATION OF CURE RATE AND DIRECT IDENTIFICATION OF SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN CROSS LINK DENSITY
Khoren Sahagian, May 2011
Traditional bulk thermal analysis provides a sample-averaged result and cannot generally supply sufficient information about complex structures or heterogeneities within polymeric systems. A nanoscale thermal probe heats a localized region on the sample surface to measure its thermal transition temperatures. Transition temperature microscopy (TTM) enables these measurements to be carried out rapidly at a succession of points, thus creating automated high-resolution spatial maps of the thermal properties. We demonstrate how nanoTA can be used to characterize cross link density and to study cure rate in a time resolved manner.
MANUFACTURING OF MICROPELLETS USING RAYLEIGH DISTURBANCES
Martin Launhardt, William Aquite, Natalie Rudolph, Tim Osswald, May 2011
The goal of this research work is to prove the capability of manufacturing spherical polymer micropellets of a unit size using Rayleigh disturbances. This phenomenon describes the breakup of a liquid stream into droplets while being deformed by another fluid under a competing force field that results from surface tension effects. Here, a polymer melt was surrounded by a jet of hot air in a special nozzle. The main focus of this work is on the design and construction of the micropelletizer and the search for a process window that results in break-up. Micropellets were successfully manufactured.
IDENTIFYING CONTAMINANTS IN PLASTIC PELLETS AND HANDLING SYSTEMS: ANGEL HAIR, SNAKE SKINS, POLYMER FINES, WAXES AND LUBRICANTS
John Tria, Michael Goodin, Lori Ables, Karen Parker, Merry Bergeron, May 2011
Mechanical processes used to make plastic pellets and transport them through manufacturing, shipping and end-use can create contaminant bodies. These bodies include normal polymer fines, high-melting polymer (angel hair, snake skins), surface applications like lubricants and waxes and oligomers. They cause various problems in material handling, processing and product performance. Analytical laboratory techniques can readily provide the identification needed to specify corrective actions. Examples from polyamide processing are discussed.
IONOMER MODIFIED ASPHALTS
Ying Shi, May 2011
The structure and properties of ionomer modified asphalt were investigated. The thermal properties, morphology and rheology of four concentrations of a Pen grade 64-22 asphalt and the zinc salt of a poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) were studied. After establishing the linear viscoelastic range of response through strain sweep, frequency sweep at a temperature range of 30-80‹?øC were conducted to study the dynamic mechanic properties of the modified blends. The ionomer modified and base asphalt samples were subjected to simulated real life conditions such as long and short aging, high and low service temperatures. Better performances were achieved by the modification.
THE ROLE OF PARTITIONING OF ORGANOCLAY ON MICROFIBRILLAR MORPHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF PP/PBT BLEND NANOCOMPOSITE FIBERS
Ahmad Bigdeli, Hossien Nazockdast, Abosaied Rashidi, Mohammad Esmaeil, May 2011
The aim of this work was to provide an insight on the effect of partitioning of organically modified montmorillonite (organoclay) on the droplet deformation and resulting microfibrillar morphology development in melt spun Polypropylene/Poly(butylene terephthalate) /Organoclay blend nanocomposite fibers. The samples with the same blend ratio (80/20) but varying in organoclay content were prepared with and without the compatibilizer by using a melt intercalation process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. It was demonstrated that presence of nanoclay in multi blend system can play different roles on the extent of microfibrils formation depending on nanoclay partitioning.
EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON CRYSTALLINITY OF INJECTION MOLDED POLYPROPYLENE/ETHYLENE-OCTANE COPOLYMER BLEND:BE DIFFERENT ON CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS
Shengqu Zeng, Huamin Zhou, Fen Liu, Zhigao Huang, May 2011
In this experiment, a different effect of pressure on crystallinity and crystallization kinetics was found compared with anterior research. This experiment is concern with the effect of holding pressure on crystallinity of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in injection molded polypropylene (PP) /Ethylene Octane Copolymer (POE) blends with fixed weight ratio (75/25). Sliced samples cutting from the midway of the moldings were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Absolute crystallinity of PP of every sample with different depth can be calculated. Crystallinity was found to be decreased with increasing holding pressure although the crystallization kinetics was accelerated.
EXTRUSION OF POLYPROPYLENE AND HYDROCARBON RESIN BLENDS
Jay Keung, Yann Devorest, Marty Levine, C.Y. Cheng, May 2011
Hydrocarbon resins (HCR) can be extruded with polypropylene resin (PP) directly from the dry blend to save tolling cost from a masterbatching process.?ÿ Up to 20% of HCR has been successfully extruded using a single screw extruder. The screw design and processing temperatures are critical to avoid surging and to achieve a comparable output rate as PP.?ÿ Barrier screws with Maddock type mixing section were used to compare extrusion performance.?ÿ Internal pressures along the screw were monitored to determine the process bottleneck and to optimize the processing conditions. Extrusion performance is presented at different blend ratios and screw designs.
ESTIMATION OF TEMPERATURE INCREASE IN A PARTIALLY FILLED ZSK-90 COROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER USING MESH PARTITIONING TECHNIQUE
Mahesh Gupta, Vivek Rohatgi, Ralf Kuehn, May 2011
The velocity distribution predicted by an isothermal simulation of the flow in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder is used to estimate the heat generated due to viscous dissipation. If the conveying and mixing elements of the extruder are assumed to be fully filled, the predicted temperature increase is much larger than the corresponding experimental values. If the temperature increase is calculated based only upon heat generated in the portion which has positive value of pressure, that is, the portion which is fully filled, the predicted temperature increase matches closely with the corresponding experimental data.
PHYSICAL PROPERTY RETENTION OF EXTERIOR AUTOMOTIVE MOLD-IN-COLOR PLASTICS AFTER UV EXPOSURE
H. Banyay, May 2011
This paper explores the UV weathering performance of Mold-In-Color plastic technologies used for exterior trim applications. The focus is the retention of physical properties after exposure to lab UV radiation that simulates actual outdoor exposure. Various test specimens are exposed to Xenon Arc UV radiation then tested for mechanical properties vs. unexposed controls. Samples are also analyzed for change in color and gloss. Finally the parts are analyzed for surface chemistry changes via infrared spectroscopy and surface morphology. These analysis are correlated with physical property changes
RHEOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP IN IMMISCIBLE AND REACTIVELY COMPATIBILIZED SAN/EPDM BLENDS
Mona Taheri, Jalil Morshedian, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, May 2011
In immiscible blend of SAN/EPDM a coarse morphology is formed. In reactive blends, formation of graft at the interface causes fine stable droplet morphology. Favis equation shows at 17 wt% of graft the size of EPDM would be minimum. The interfacial tension of the blends determined by Palierne and Choi-Schowalter models shows minimum value at 1 phr initiator. The droplet morphology is changed to composite in two step blending method. A higher apparent volume fraction of EPDM in the blend with composite morphology which has been also obtained by Kerner equation is an indication of the evolution of composite morphology.
Practical Rheology and its Role in Polymer Processing
Timothy W. Womer, June 2011
Powerpoint Presentation at Polyolefin Conference 2011
Practical Rheology and its Role in Polymer Processing
Timothy W. Wormer, June 2011
Rheology is the science of material flow behavior, which is a very complex and multi-dimensional science. Even though it is complex, it also is quintessential to understand in order to optimize the processing of polymers. Knowing the difference between amorphous and crystalline polymers, what Melt Index really tells, and the effects of melt temperature on melt fracture are all important elements in the understanding of rheology. A simple understanding of what polymer rheology is and how shear and temperature can affect the flow characteristic of a polymer may make a big difference in the P & L of a company.
Sustainability with Automotive Carbon Fibre Composites: Reclaimed Carbon Fibre — cPBT Thermoplastic Composite
Jackie Rehkopf, September 2011
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Thermoplastic Overmolded Continuous Fiber Structures
Kipp Grumm, Amit Kulkarni, September 2011
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Design and Fabrication of a Structural Composite Automotive Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2011
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a structural composite underbody by the Automotive Composites Consortium. This includes material and process development joint methodology and design design of the component manufacture and design scenario and initial fabrication of the underbody.
Properties and Molding of a Fabric SMC for a Structural Composite Automotive Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2011
The glass fabric SMC developed by the Automotive Composites Consortium for a structural composite underbody was compounded molded and characterized for material and thermal properties and NDE techniques evaluated for damage inspection.
Mechanical & Impact Response of Recycled Thermoplastic & Flyash Foam Composites
Uday Vaidya, September 2011
The heavy transport industry has a significant amount of scrap generated in the manufacture of parts such as trailer bodies and structural components. Presently that scrap is landfilled. This paper presents the processing and resulting properties of recycled thermoplastic composites into useful products for reuse in transportation and related applications.
ANALYSIS OF POLYPROPYLENE ODOR BASED ON ELECTRONICOLFACTORY SYSTEM
Jin Yan, Kang Peng, Li Xue, September 2011
In this paper the undesirable odor from virgin PP resin was studied using an electronic olfactory system equipped with a set of metal oxide semi-conductor sensors. Odor of PP resin and the effects of heating temperature and heating time on the odor from different grades of PP resin were studied. It was found that the odor of PP resin was detected by the electronic olfactory system. Effects of heating temperature above 50 °C and heating time on the release of the odor were obviously observed and the odor intensity increased with the increase of heating temperature and the extension of heating time.
Integration of Features into Parts Made from Thermoplastic Unidirectional Tape — Overview and Case Study
Benjamin Hangs, September 2011
Thermoplastic composite materials have lately been considered increasingly for application in structural components. Especially semi-finished products with continuous fiber-reinforcement such as woven fabrics or unidirectional tapes have a high potential to increase part performance significantly. However due to their limited drapability and flowability the forming of highly complex structures such as ribs is not feesible. This paper presents an overveiw of desired features that are commonly part of complex technical applications. It shows how implementation of those can be achieved with continuous-fiber-reinforcement structures by combining them with short and long fiber-reinforcement material. The subsequent case study presents a related investigation on overmolding of unidirectional tape inserts. In conclusion an outlook is given on how these results can be transferred to more complex components.
Program Summary of the ACC Automotive Composites Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2011
A structural composite underbody capable of carrying crash loads has been designed fabricated assembled into a structure and tested by the Automotive Composites Consortium. The underbody is compression molded of sheet molding compound (SMC) with a vinyl ester matrix and predominately glass fabric reinforcement with some chopped glass. CAE-based design methodologies were utilized to assess the structural stiffness and impact performance of the initial composite underbody design. Weld bonding was selected as the means to join the composite underbody to the steel passenger compartment. A method for weld bonding the structural composite has been developed and tested in static and dynamic modes. The molded underbody was tested in modal bending and torsion. The underbody was assembled into a structure mimicking an automotive body-in-white and tested to simulate an offset deformable barrier crash. The Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) is a joint program between GM Ford Chrysler and is funded in part by the United States Department of Energy.


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