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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
The Effect of PIB Molecular Weight on the Cling Characteristics of Polyethylene/PIB Films for Stretch and Cling Film Applications
C.M. Small, G.M. Mc Nally, W.R. Murphy, A.H. Clarke, May 2004
The effect of molecular weight on the migratory characteristics of polyisobutylene (PIB) additive from the bulk to the surface of a range of mono-layer and multi-layer extruded polyethylene films was analysed by FTIR-ATR and peel cling analysis. Migration rates were shown to be higher for low molecular weight additive and cling strength increased as the PIB molecular weight increased.
A Rheological Model for Thermoplastic Resins Melt
Viktor V. Skatchkov, Alexandra I. Savchenkova, May 2004
A new rheological model of polymer melt was developed to describe viscosity-shear rate curves utilizing a four parameters equation based on Guassian processes approach for regression description of melt properties. Four parameters of the model (Newtonian viscosity at “zero” shear rate, viscosity and shear rate at inflection point, and dispersion of the rate of change of the viscosity) were found to be a function of polymer chain structure, molecular weight and temperature. The model provides precision description in a wide range of conditions of shear deformation of the polymer melts, solutions, blends and alloys.
Experiments in Micro-Welding of Polycarbonate with Laser Diodes
David Grewell, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
Polymer use in micro-devices, especially in the medical industry has been rapidly increasing. During assembly of micro-devices it is desirable to produce weld joints that are about 100 ?m in width. This paper reviews the use of fiber coupled laser diodes in conjunction with special lenses to produce spot sizes between 25 and 50 ?m in diameter for through transmission infrared welding technique. Studies were completed to evaluate the effect of travel speed, power density and pressure on weld quality for polycarbonate and polystyrene. It was found that process parameters are extremely critical in producing consistent welds. In addition, new testing techniques had to be developed to allow quantitative measurements to be made on weld strength due to relatively small weld area. Micrographs of the resulting welds revealed evidence of ablation at high heat inputs. Finite element analysis of the mechanical tests showed that the localized weld strength approached the yield strength of polycarbonate.
Modeling Heat Flow for a Moving Heat Source to Describe Scan Micro-Laser Welding
David Grewell, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
Polymer use in micro-devices, especially in the medical industry has been rapidly increasing. During assembly of micro-devices it is desirable to produce weld joints that are about 100 ?m in width. This paper reviews the modeling of heat flow during through transmission infrared micro-welding of plastic using fiber coupled laser diodes. Two models were used to predict temperature distributions within welded samples. Both models were based on a moving heat source and moving coordinate system. For the simpler model a moving point heat source was used and for the more complex model a Gaussian distributed heat source was used. It was found that the distributed model can accurately predict temperature fields in plastic laser welds for all ranges of the parameters evaluated. However, the point heat source model was only able to accurately predict temperature fields with a relatively small laser focal spot (25 ?m). In addition it was found that for micro-welding of plastics, when the dimensionless distribution parameter is less than two, a point heat source model predicts similar widths to those predicted by a distributed heat source model.
Measurement of Residual Stresses in Clearwelds Using Photoelasticity
Satish Anantharaman, Avraham Benatar, Nicole Woosman, Scott Hartley, May 2004
Residual stresses are detrimental to a plastic joint for a number of reasons. They lead to reduced strength and fatigue life in joints, act as stress concentrators and cause crazing, cracking when exposed to solvents. In this paper, the residual stresses in Clearweld® joints were measured using photoelasticity. This interference based technique was used in conjunction with a stress separation algorithm to quantify the maximum residual stress level and the stress distribution in the weld region. Also, the effects of process parameters like welding speed, power and ink solvents on residual stresses were evaluated. The GE solvent test was also employed for comparison with the photoelasticity results. A comparison of the residual stresses between various joining processes was also made.
Diode Laser Characterization and Measurement of Optical Properties of Polycarbonate and High-Density Polyethylene
Moonyeong Rhew, Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
In recent years, the use of high power diode lasers for through transmission laser welding (TTLW) of thermoplastics has increased rapidly due to the many advantages that they provide, mainly their compact size and low cost. The diode laser output can affect the heating rate and uniformity, making it important to characterize the diode laser in any welding application. In this study, diode laser bar characterization included measurement of the power efficiency, beam shape, and intensity distribution. Those measurements were performed with and without a proprietary fiber bundle provided by Branson Ultrasonics, which improved the uniformity of power intensity. In TTLW laser beam reflection, absorption and scattering as it passes through the transparent part affects the power that reaches the weld interface. Therefore, it was important to study the transmittance and reflectance of polycarbonate and high-density polyethylene. The effects of thickness and beam incident angle on transmittance and reflectance were also measured.
Applications of Polymers in Cement-Based Structural Materials
D.D.L. Chung, May 2004
Cement-based materials are widely used in the civil infrastructure. Polymers as admixtures can improve the properties, particularly in relation to water absorption reduction, toughness enhancement, vibration damping and increase of the bond strength of cement to reinforcements. Polymeric admixtures include particles, short fibers and organic liquids. Latex in the form of an aqueous particle dispersion is most common. Other than being used as admixtures, polymers are used as partial replacement of fine aggregate, for coating, sealing and repairing concrete and for coating steel reinforcing bars for corrosion protection.
Hydrosilylation of Polypropylene through Reactive Extrusion
Mercy P. Bulsari, Costas Tzoganakis, Alex Penlidis, May 2004
Hydrosilylation of terminal double bonds in polypropylene (PP) was investigated in a twin-screw extruder. This process involved two steps: i) peroxide initiated degradation, which leads to the formation of terminal double bonds and ii) the addition of siloxane compound to such bonds. FTIR was used to follow the terminal double bond formation and siloxane incorporation. The shear viscosity at different temperatures and the contact angle of the hydrosilylated PP were evaluated. The reaction was found to decrease viscosity and to improve hydrophobicity.
Measurement of Residual Stresses in Laser Welded Polycarbonate Using Photoelasticity
Satish Anantharaman, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
Residual stresses are detrimental to the strength of plastic joints. They lead to reduced strength and fatigue life in joints, act as stress concentrators and cause crazing and cracking when parts are exposed to solvents. In this paper, photoelasticity is used to measure the residual stresses in laser welded polycarbonate. Photoelasticity, an interference based technique, was used in conjunction with a stress separation algorithm to quantify these stresses along and perpendicular to the weld line. The GE solvent test was also employed to serve as a comparison to the photoelasticity results. A comparison of the residual stresses between laser welded samples and hotplate welded samples have also been made.
Effect of Polypropylene Rheology on the Vibration Welding Process
E. Lebaut, P.J. Bates, M. Kontopoulou, May 2004
Vibration welding is a joining technique to assembly thermoplastic components. Meltdown-time profiles and assessment of weld microstructure are commonly used to characterize the behavior of polymers during vibration welding. The aim of this work is to establish relationships between the rheological properties of molten polymers and their meltdown rate during vibration welding. Two polypropylene homopolymers with different molecular weights resulting in different rheological properties were studied. Vibration welding was carried out using a butt-weld geometry and meltdown-time profiles were measured. Significant discrepancies between experimental results and theoretical predictions based on the simple model developed by Stokes suggest the presence of significant elastic effects.
Real Time Temperature Measurement of Nylon 66 Butt-Joints during Vibration Welding
X.P. Zou, G. Park, V. Sidiropoulos, M. Kontopoulou, P.J. Bates, May 2004
Modeling the vibration welding process requires accurate knowledge of the melt temperature at the interface. Due to technical difficulties related to the very small molten film thickness, little work has been done to date on measuring the weld temperature under real time conditions. This paper presents a novel technique for measuring the weld temperature in real time. It involves inserting a 25 ?m thermocouple into one of the welding parts in close proximity to the weld zone. During vibration welding, the thermocouple works its way to the weld interface and records the melt temperature. The experimental data from vibration welding nylon 66 butt joints indicate that the melt temperature at the weld interface is within 15°C of the onset of polymer melting. The temperatures measured in the solid phase prior to entering the melt film are consistent with theoretical models for heat conduction into solid plates.
Heated Tool Welding of Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO)
Chung-Yuan Wu, Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Moonyeong Rhew, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
This study focused on the weldability of two specific thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO-A and TPO-B) using heated tool welding. A three-factor (heating temperature, heating time, and welding pressure) and three-level design matrix was used to perform the welding. Two statistical methods, three-factor two-level design of experiments (DOE) and Box Behnken method, were used to analyze the weld results. In addition, vibration welding of these TPOs was also used to compare the weldability. For heated tool welding, the maximum joint strength was 88% of the bulk strength for TPO-A and 76% of the bulk strength for TPOB. For vibration welding, the maximum joint strength was 65% for TPO-A and 56% for TPO-B. While heated tool welding provided stronger joints compared to vibration welding, it had a longer cycle time. The two statistical methods provided similar results indicating that the simple three-factor two-level design of experiments was a valid screening method for heated tool welding of TPO.
The Effects of Weld Geometry and Glass-Fiber Orientation on the Mechanical Performance of Joints – Part II: Kinetics of Glass-Fiber Orientation and Mechanical Performance
Val A. Kagan, Christopher Roth, May 2004
The mechanical performance of injection molded short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastic components is anisotropic and is highly dependent on the fiber orientation and distribution. Similarly, the bulk and short and long-term mechanical performance at the weld is influenced by these fibers and the specific welding technology used as related to melt-pool formation.The purpose of this analysis is to show:the short-fiber orientation (analytical and simulation data) and distribution at the pre-welded bead, ribs and wall areas;advantages of SigmaSoft injection molding simulation software, which utilizes full three dimensional fiber representation of any molded part;the mechanical performance of welds with optimized geometry (US Patent 6,447,866).Findings on the mechanical performance of butt-joints with different designs and localized geometry will help designers and technicians with plastic part design optimization. In a previous ANTEC paper (Part I), we related these findings to the kinetics of welds and part design issues for straight and T-type butt-joints.
Optimized Rheology and Density of Polyolefin Elastomers for Clarified Polypropylene Applications
Richard H. McGirk, Morgan M. Hughes, May 2004
Polyolefin elastomers based on metallocene technology are excellent impact modifiers for polypropylene. This study looks at how density and melt rheology of polyolefin elastomers affect clarity and impact performance of clarified polypropylenes with 2, 10, and 35 MFR. Optimum clarity and improved impact performance are achieved by matching rheology and density of polyolefin elastomers with polypropylene.
New Product Development: Benchmarking, Prototyping, & FEA Modeling
Josh Leonard, Justina Mikals, Pradipta Moulik, May 2004
Increasing demand for smaller products at lower costs has encouraged a rubber products company to develop a new product line made exclusively from plastic. Firestone Industrial Products Company approached new product development by benchmarking industry standards, prototyping duo-durometer polyurethane weld joints, and finite element analysis (FEA) modeling of a flex-member component.
Plastics Standards - A Great Benefit
Lawrence B. Ingram, May 2004
Suppliers, manufacturers, and consumers receive significant value from plastics standards. Standards are important in the marketplace because of their educational value, effects on research, product development and production. Improved electrical performance and evolving fire standards requirements necessitate changes to improve how wire and cable standards are developed. Technical people from materials suppliers, manufacturers, and users are needed to support these efforts. As plastic materials improve, the need to develop performance-based standards more rapidly is necessary.
Feasibility of Selected Methods for Embossing Micro-Features in Thermoplastics
David Grewell, Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Avraham Benatar, Chunmeng Lu, L. James Lee, May 2004
During the last few decades the use of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) has been steadily increasing in a number of industries, and especially in the medical industry. One application for MEMS is in micro-fluidic devices that rely on micro-channels (10 to 200 ?m wide and deep) to direct and analyze fluids for medical diagnostics. Current methods for producing these features, including hot embossing and micro-injection molding, can be slow (1 to 10 minutes cycle time), are only amendable to batch processing and expensive. Fast surface heating embossing methods have the potential of producing micro-channels rapidly and inexpensively. Three embossing methods were studied: ultrasonic, infrared radiation (IR) heating and hot gas heating. For IR and hot gas heating, a cold tool with the micro-features was pressed onto the surface immediately following heating. Similarly, for ultrasonic embossing the micro-features were machined on the surface of the horn. It was found that cycle times as short as a few seconds were achieved and the quality of the features was similar to those seen in injection molding. In addition FEA studies were conducted to simulate polymer flow during embossing.
3D-Laser Transmission Welding
E. Haberstroh, R. Luetzeler, May 2004
Contour welding is a variant of the laser transmission welding that offers the highest flexibility relative to the weld geometry. In this process the laser beam is translated along the weld line using a robot. This paper reviews the results of welding experiments using a proprietary box geometry with a three-dimensional weld line. It was found that low leakages and high burst pressures can be achieved with optimized process parameters for Polyamide or Polyacetale. In addition, short welding times (a few seconds) were demonstrated. Thus, this process is well suited for mass production of complex plastics parts. It was also seen that the process is relatively robust and weld quality is relatively independent of parameter settings (over the ranges evaluated).
Through Transmission Laser Welding of Polycarbonate and High-Density Polyethylene
Moonyeong Rhew, Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Avraham Benatar, May 2004
Through Transmission Laser Welding (TTLW) of thermoplastics is a relatively new joining process with many advantages for design and manufacturing of various components in electronic, medical and automotive industries. The use of high power diode laser systems has made TTLW a cost effective process in welding of many amorphous and semicrystalline polymers. In this work, a laser welding system, comprised of a power supply and a diode laser with a Branson proprietary fiber bundle, was used to experimentally study TTLW of polycarbonate (PC) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The effects of welding power (measured laser power at the interface), heating time, and welding pressure on joint strength were studied. Maximum weld strength of about 95% the bulk strength of PC and HDPE were achieved.
Overlap Welding of Thermoplastic Parts without Causing Surface Thermal Damage by Using a CO2 Laser
Yasuo Kurosaki, Tomoya Matayoshi, Kimitoshi Sato, May 2004
This paper deals with the principle and applications of a novel infrared laser welding procedure for overlapped thermoplastic parts. Features of experiment, using a CO2 laser as a radiation heat source and numerical simulation of heat transfer phenomena combined with radiation and conduction in the welding process, are demonstrated. Not only high weld strength but also excellent surface quality of welded regions is essential for overlap welding of plastics in industrial applications.The current welding procedure was developed using a combination of penetration infrared radiation heating process and thermal diffusion cooling process by a solid material which is transparent to infrared radiation as a heatsink. The solid heatsink placed in contact with an irradiated surface of overlapped thermoplastic parts during radiation heating. This welding procedure is able to achieve both high weld strength and excellent surface appearance without causing surface thermal damage, as is often suffered in conventional direct infrared radiation welding process without a solid heatsink. In addition, the pigmentation of the welding material to increase absorption of radiation is unnecessary for this procedure.

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