SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

In-Situ Characterization of Cavitation during the Deformation of Semi-Crystalline Polymers
Christian G'Sell, Frédéric Addiego, Abdesselam Dahoun, Jean-Marie Hiver, May 2004

A novel testing technique is presented for the quantitative measurement of cavitation in polyethylene and talc-filled polypropylene, subjected to uniaxial tension. Both materials exhibit extensive dilatation in the plastic stage. In the case of neat polyethylene, the kinetics of cavitation is correlated with SEM observation of crazing within the stretched spherulitic microstructure. For talc-filled polypropylene, extensive cavitation makes him suitable for shock absorption.

Reduction of Stress-Whitening in Polypropylene Extrusion Blow Molded Bottles
Thomas Pressly, Noor Jivraj, Clive Bosnyak, Gene Young, Vicki Tharp, May 2004

Reduction in stress-whitening of polypropylene is critical for success in the clear packaging market. Other factors desired include stiffness and toughness. A fundamental study of stress-whitening, and key factors (resin and processing) is presented. A lab scale test method for quantifying stress whitening, validation of the method with extrusion blow molding (EBM), and the observed stress-whitening mechanisms are discussed.

Novel Polypropylene Materials for Biaxially Oriented Film
Sehyun Kim, May 2004

A resin for BOPP (biaxially oriented polypropylene) film requires good stretchability in addition to general desirable properties of film. Although a HCPP (high crystalline polypropylene) or a nucleated polypropylene offers higher stiffness, its processability on a tenter line is significantly limited. This study introduces a novel HCPP resin that could improve processability while maintaining enhanced stiffness or toughness.

Cutting and Tear Resistance of PET Films
Melissa E. Light, Alan J. Lesser, May 2004

Comparisons between cutting and tear resistance of polyethylene terephthalate film are shown in relation to film properties and loading condition. Tear resistance is characterized by the essential work of fracture method in mode I as a function of test speed and temperature. Cutting resistance is characterized using non-standard test methodologies. Interrelationships between the two tests as well as the possibility of correlation to commercial slitting processes are discussed.

How Much Do We Really Understand about Crystallization in Polymers?
Paul J. Phillips, Xiaoping Guan, May 2004

Our understanding of crystallization in polymers is based on crystallization behavior at a series of isothermal crystallization temperatures. Studies of the crystallization of nylon 66 and PET using embedded microthermocouples and rapid cooling show that a constant linear growth rate occurs as the temperature drops. This behavior shows that crystallization is controlled by a temperature gradient at the growth face, and not by the measured temperature.

Morphology, Crystallization Kinetics and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Phosphate Glass-Polyamide 12 Hybrid Materials
Kevin Urman, Joshua Otaigbe, May 2004

This study focuses on a fundamental study of morphology, crystallization kinetics, and dynamic mechanical properties of a novel phosphate glass- polyamide 12 hybrid system with up to 50% by volume of a low Tg phosphate glass (Pglass). The hybrid properties were enhanced with increasing amounts of Pglass. The crystallization kinetics was found to be consistent with the Avrami equation. Morphological investigations revealed a thermodynamically stable structure that could be tuned to targeted specifications.

Crystallinity, Orientation and Mechanical Property Development in Melt Spinning Poly(ethylene-co-octene) Filaments
Haifeng Shan, James L.White, May 2004

The structure development in melt spinning of poly(ethylene-co-octene) with different octene contents has been studied. The filaments are characterized by WAXD, birefringence and DSC. Crystal structures of four copolymers are determined. The Herman-Stein crystalline orientation factors are then calculated. The uniaxial mechanical properties are also measured.

The Effect of Shear and Pressure on the Crystallization of Polymers
Stanley P.Westphal, May 2004

Among crystallizible polymers changes in state can be brought about by the action of shear and pressure. Yet, we most often characterize the crystallization staticially. All polymer conversions processes subject the polymer to high shear, stresses and pressure. These can have very significant effects on the mechanical properties of the materials. This work has shown that almost every effect we observe from static crystallization studies is reversed in studies where the material was subjected to shear and pressure.

Diverse Morphologies and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior in Metallocene Polyethylene Copolymers
Xiaoping Guan, Paul J. Phillips, May 2004

Dynamic mechanical relaxation experiments were performed on a series of ethylene/1-octene copolymers with diverse morphologies from impinged spherulite to totally amorphous structure. The continuously changing dynamic mechanical relaxation behavior is related to structure parameters, such as crystal structure, crystallinity and lamellar thickness, acquired from DSC, WAXD, and SAXS experiments.

Polymer Blends as Proton-Exchange Membrane Materials for Fuel Cells
Steven Swier, M.T. Shaw, R.A. Weiss, May 2004

Blends of sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) and poly(ether imide) (PEI) are being considered as proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) to achieve high conductivities while maintaining the mechanical stability required for use in fuel cells. Proton conductivity comparable to Nafion™ has been obtained. Variables such as the SPEKK sulfonation level, the blend composition and the membrane casting procedure affect the blend microstructure and the fuel cell performance.

Effect of the Viscosity Ratio on the Particle Coalescence in PS/HDPE Blends under Extensional Flow
M.O. Vázquez, O. Gloria Bello, R. González-Núñez, M. Arellano, F.J. Moscoso, May 2004

The effect of viscosity ratio and concentration on particle coalescence in PS/HDPE blends was studied. Three different PS and HDPE were used in order to modify the viscosity ratio (p). The blends were prepared by extrusion at 200°C. A morphological study in postextrusion zone is presented where the draw-down ratio (DR) is varied. The evolution of particle to fibers is interpreted in terms of coalescence particles where the viscosity ratio plays an important role.

Modeling of Cell Structure in Polyurethane Foam
Katsuhisa Yamashita, Chisato Nonomura, Akihiko Goto, Kazumi Yamaguchi, May 2004

We suggested that the cell structure of polyurethane foam could be approximated to be oval by the use of Finite Element Method. Three kinds of parameters for cell modeling were employed, which are ratio of radius, the area, and thickness of cell wall.

Enhancement of Adhesion between High Density Polyethylene and Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) Films
Hande Durgun, Goknur Bayram, May 2004

Blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA) prepared in a twin-screw extruder, were used to improve the adhesion between HDPE and poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET films.The results of T-peel tests showed that the adhesion strength between the films increased with increasing bonding temperature, pressing time and elastomer concentration. The adhesion characteristics of multilayer films were studied in terms of morphological and spectroscopic analyses.

Comparing Models for the Glass Transition Temperatures of Compatible Polymer Mixtures
F. Rodriguez, May 2004

Various proposed equations relating glass transition temperature to composition are compared for:. Relative success in fitting unsymmetrical temperature-composition diagrams,. Number (and ease of establishing) required constants, and, Ability to be cast explicitly in either temperature or composition. A novel exponential form satisfies these criteria very well. It is contrasted with another author's equally successful but mechanically awkward form which is based on thermodynamic considerations

Break-Through in High Performance Ionomers: Morphology and Properties
John C. Chen, J. David Londono, May 2004

Ethylene ionomers have been the material of choice for the golf ball cover and mantle applications due to the excellent resilience, high cut resistance, and good impact durability. The ethylene ionomers achieve the unique property characteristics through the development of network morphology. In this paper we discuss the development of ionomers with novel compositions, we present evidence of the effect of composition on morphology, and propose a model that accounts for the outstanding performance of these ionomers.

Characterization of LLDPE/Monmorillonite Nanocomposite
Jong Hyun Bae, Sung Hun Ryu, Young Wook Chang, May 2004

Physical properties, such as gas permeability, tensile property, and dispersion behavior of nanopowder of linear low density polyethylene and monmorillonite nanocomposite were investigated. Nanocomposites were prepared by twin screw extruder and internal mixer under various processing conditions. XRD was used to evaluate the degree of intercalation/exfoliation. Significant change of dispersion behavior of monmorillonite and physical properties were observed depending on the processing conditions

Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastic Olefins (TPOs) during Three-Point Bend Impact
L. González, T.E. Godlewski, B. Wooten, P.A. Gustafson, May 2004

We have characterized the mechanical behavior of five commercially available thermoplastic olefins (TPOs) and a polypropylene homopolymer (PP) during quasi-static (1.7 x 10-5 m/s) and dynamic (2.2 and 8.9 m/s) three-point bend loading at -40, -30 and 22 °C. All materials tested stiffened significantly with increasing impact speed and decreasing temperatures. Flexural moduli increased 51 to 119 % with increasing impact speeds, while increases of 86 to 219 % were measured during low temperature tests.

Relation between Mobility and Diffusion Factors for Thermoset Cure
Yan Meng, Sindee L. Simon, May 2004

The temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) response during cure of thermosetting materials is modeled using chemical reaction kinetics with diffusion control. Physical aging effects are incorporated into the model using the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan equations. We investigate the assumption that the mobility factor, which is often obtained from experimental TMDSC reversing heat flow data, is related to the diffusion factor.

Effect of Cure Cycle on Residual Stress Development in Thermosetting Materials
Mikhail Merzlyakov, Gregory B. McKenna, Sindee L. Simon, May 2004

We have studied the effect of cure cycle on isotropic residual stress development stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. We use a thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints on the resin. The strain at the outer surface of the load cell is monitored by strain gauges. Cure-induced stresses are much lower than expected from cure shrinkage due to the inability of the curing resin to sustain large tensile stresses in the rubbery state.

Effects of Ultrasonic Processing on the Thermal Behavior of Epoxy Polymers
Richard D. West, Vivak M. Malhotra, May 2004

Ultrasonic cavitation shows great promise in the development and fabrication of polymer composites, including nanocomposites. We report how the ultrasonic processing of two epoxies affected their curing behavior by undertaking systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements.

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