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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Mechanical Properties of Bast Fibers
Munder Friedrich, Fuerll Christian, Hempel Heinz, May 2004

Bast fibers like flax, hemp or kenaf have excellent mechanical properties which predestine these fibers for reinforcement of composites. The real mechanical properties of the fibers were measured. Diameter of fibers, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and breaking elongation are available.

Thermal Properties and Structure Development in Film Extrusion Syndiotactic Polystyrene
Myeong-Ho Hong, James L. White, May 2004

A study of crystallization behavior and stretching of syndiotactic polystyrene cast film are considered. The isothermal crystallization rate of syndiotactic polystyrene was faster than isotactic polystyrene but slower than isotactic and syndiotactic polypropylene at the same ?T(?T=Tm–Tc). The birefringences of stretched films were developed faster than atactic polystyrene according to their stretching ratio. The crystalline orientation was represented in terms of stretching ratio.

Synthesis of Silicate-Polyamide Nanocomposites via Interfacial Polycondensation
Zehra Sibel Kalkan, Lloyd A. Goettler, May 2004

In this work the synthesis of synthetic hectorite layered silicate - polyamide 66 nanocomposites by interfacial polycondensation is investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of the process and to produce viable nanocomposite product via this simple and low-cost process. Optimum reaction conditions and possible post-condensation treatments are identified for further study to obtain higher molecular weight product.

Displacement and Strain Analysis in a Non Homogeneous Material
Bartolomeo Trentadue, May 2004

Electronic holography moiré is applied to the measurement of interfacial conditions between particle and matrix in a non homogeneous rubber material. A tensile specimen is subjected to creep loading. The loads are applied in steps and measurements are carried out at equal intervals of time. The final output is provided by the Holo-Moiré Strain Analyzer and gives the principal strains and their directions in the region of observation. A definition of adhesion as an experimental measurable quantity through the evaluation of contour integrals is introduced.

Application of GRP for Chimney Liners Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfur Trioxide
Valery G. Makarov, May 2004

Innovative development and application of a multilayer GRP structure for chimney liners exposed to sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide are described.The structure is made by winding. It includes a chemical proof layer, a constructional layer and an external layer.Inspections have shown no deterioration of GRP after three months of operation. GRP are affective constructional material of the universal purpose.

Novel Technique for Predicting Long Term Resistanse of Chemical Resistant GRP
Rakhil M. Sinelnikova, Valery G. Makarov, May 2004

A novel technique of estimating the lifetime of chemical resistant GRP is described.Destruction of GRP is considered as a heterogeneous chemical reaction of the first or zero order with constant energy of activation.Based on these estimations, it is recommended to use GRP for chimney liners exposed to sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. Received results were used for forecasting of service life of GRP.

Rheological, Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Polyolefins/Sea Shells Composites
J. González, M. Candal, C. Albano, M. Ichazo, M. Mayz, A. Martínez, May 2004

The rheological, thermal and mechanical behavior of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with sea shells composites at different concentrations of filler were investigated. The composites were prepared by extrusion and injection molding. Most filler addition to composites promoted a slightly increase on the melt viscosity, improve the tensile modulus and the thermal stability in all composites studied.

Effect of Morpholgy on Mechanical Properties of Composites Prepared by Reaction-Induced Phase Separation
Amit Chandra, Sadhan C. Jana, May 2004

A new class of fiber-reinforced composite materials was designed in our laboratory by using a hybrid of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. The thermosetting polymer phase separates upon curing reaction and creates morphology on the fiber surfaces. Effect of the morphology is studied on the fracture toughness of the composite, with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of the resulting fiber reinforced composite.

NMR Analysis for a Secret Ingredient
P.R. Lewis, May 2004

Finding very small amounts of a secret compound in complex mixtures presents a big challenge for analysts. A dispute between two companies involved building plasters with a polymer viscosity modifier. The case hinged on confidential information about the exact structure of the polymer, which one company had apparently taken illicitly from the other. FTIR revealed little, so NMR was used to identify the compound in deuterated DMF extracts from the plasters. They showed that the plasters possessed compounds of identical structure. The case was settled without trial.

Detecting Defects and the Onset of Failure of Adhesive Bonds Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Suresh Mani, Michael J. Rich, Robert J. Jurek, Lawrence T. Drzal, Guy D. Davis, May 2004

Tape sensors were mounted on the adherends and the health of the adhesive bonds was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that EIS measurements can discriminate bonded and unbonded areas in CFRP-Al systems. The EIS measurements are also sensitive to the weakening of adhesive bonds caused by exposure to humidity at high temperatures.

Microscopy and X-Ray Elemental Spectroscopy in Failure Analysis: Case Studies
Kevin P. Battjes, May 2004

Optical and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) are effective tools in investigating the cause of failures in articles made from plastics. Practical examples and findings are reviewed that have been used to solve customer problems in real world applications.

Thermal Properties of ? Nucleated Polypropylenes
Martin Obadal, Roman ?ermák, Roman ?abla, Karel Stoklasa, May 2004

Commercially available isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was modified by various amounts of a specific ?- nucleating agent. Isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting behavior were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The findings resulting from this work (such as crystallization halftimes, other kinetics parameters, glass transition temperatures, etc.) can significantly assist to explain not a few open questions concerning ?-nucleated polypropylenes and their processing.

Method for Measuring the Kinetics of Isometric Crystallization of Thermoplastic Sheets and Patient Fixation Devices
Bogdan Bogdanov, May 2004

A new method for crystallization kinetics of stretched polymer samples and real size polymer articles under isometric conditions is developed. The internal shrinkage force caused by the volume contraction of the sample during crystallization is measured incessantly. The kinetics parameters of isometric crystallization are calculated by the Avrami equation and discussed in terms of controlled molecular structure and design of large polymer sheet samples and of patient fixation devices for medical application in radiation therapy.

Viscosity of Blowing Agent Laden Polymer
Subir K. Dey, David B. Todd, Chen Wan, May 2004

The viscosity of a blowing agent laden polymer was measured using a Helical Barrel Rheometer (HBR). Temperature, pressure and shear rate dependence of viscosity at a fixed blowing agent concentration was computed from the experimental data. Technique was developed to identify the onset of bubble nucleation by measuring the shear viscosity as function of hydrostatic pressure.

Structure-Property Relationships in Coextruded Foam/Film Microlayers
Aditya Ranade, Anne Hiltner, Eric Baer, David Bland, May 2004

It has been demonstrated for the first time that microcellular foam structures can be produced using the microlayer coextrusion technology. Cell size can be reduced considerably by increasing the number of layers without adversely affecting the density. Unique mechanical properties can be achieved through material choice and layer structure. The cell morphology and the compressive response of these multilayered foam/film structures are similar to that of cork.

Processing and Properties of Foamed HDPE/PP Blends by Extrusion
E. Herrera Tejeda, C. Zepeda Sahagún, R. González Núñez, D. Rodrigue, May 2004

This paper presents a study on the processing condition and characterization of foamed HDPE/PP blends. The blends were foamed with different blowing agent concentrations using a twin-screw extruder. A chemical blowing agent (azodicarbonamide) and activator agent (ZnO) were selected and the morphological, rheological and mechanical properties of the resulting foams are presented.

Effect of the Filler Content on the Specific Properties of Syntatic Foam
Erwin M. Wouterson, Freddy Y.C. Boey, Xiao Hu, Shing-Chung Wong, May 2004

In this study we assessed the specific properties including tensile, compression and flexure strengths and moduli for syntactic foam as a function of various microstructures. Preliminary results revealed that the specific compressive strength and the specific tensile, compressive and flexural moduli depended on the type of microsphere, which varied in density. Mechanical properties are critically evaluated in light of their microstructures.

Capillary Rheometry Studies on Wall Slip Flow of Ceramic Pastes
A. González-Álvarez, J. Graczyk, H. Buggisch, May 2004

The extrusion behavior of ?–aluminium oxide– silicone oil pastes were investigated via capillary rheometry. Several parameters affecting the paste behavior were considered, including the viscosity of the fluid phase, the solids concentration (35 to 55 Vol. %), the extrusion rate (10-2 to 103 mm/s) and the addition of pigment. The flow curves and wall slip behavior were determined under the extrusion conditions.

Synthesis of Blocky Copolymers via Ring-Opening Polymerization Using L,L-Lactide and MBC
Adam J. Pesek, May 2004

A semi-crystalline copolymer was synthesized with block-like structures by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) using L,L-lactide (LLA) and 5-methyl-5- benzyloxycarbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MBC). Analysis of the copolymer revealed retention of crystallinity and melting transition temperatures. The copolymer exhibited an upper limit to compositional incorporation of MBC before crystallinity was disrupted. The physical properties (Tg, Tc, Tm) were increased after hydrogenation.

Novel Impact Modification in Olefin Systems
Anna P. Andrews, Vicky Bryg, Anthony Dean, Paul DeFranco, Ann Panek, May 2004

Unique additives enable increases in the Gardner impact strength of polyolefins by a factor of 10 while maintaining up to 90% of the material flexural modulus. The effects of resin and additive loading level are addressed in a statistically designed experiment. Physical performance, rheological effects, thermal characterization, and morphological characterization are reported.







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