SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
SMC REPLACEMENT WITH ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS IN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLE BODY PANELS MARKET SPACE
N. Venkatesha , Claes Lindberg , Stefan Johannesson , Derek Buckmaster, May 2010
Traditionally body panels of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) are built in Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) or metal. OEMs are looking for fuel-efficient lightweight and greener technology solutions. The specific gravity of Engineering Thermoplastic (ETP) is much lower and offers significant weight reduction opportunity over SMC/metal. This paper presents limitations of SMC key challenges in terms of aesthetics and high flow length to thickness ratio in processing HCV body panels with ETP. Show how these are solved through novel thickness distribution feed system and process design. It is highly essential to design with plastic friendly concepts and to build the tool for balanced filling no aesthetic defects minimum pressure and tonnage. Predictive engineering is the best tool to use at the design phase to achieve first time right.
SOFT AND FLEXIBLE IONOMER WITH GOOD SCRATCH RESISTANCE
Agustín Torres, Joel Bohórquez, Willian Noriega, May 2010
New ionomers have been developed to afford exceptional soft feel, high flexibility, and good scratch resistance. The thermoplastic characteristics enable ease of melt processing, good adhesion to various substrates, HF weldability, and deep draw thermal forming. The new ionomer is optically clear and glossy, and can be colored and printed. It has good compatibility with various pigments and additives for enhanced esthetic effects and outdoor weatherability. The soft feel and scratch resistance, coupled with the versatile processibility, make the new ionomers well-suited for protective and decorative applications. It contains no intentionally added halogen and can be recycled or incinerated to serve as an environmentally friendly alternative to flexible PVC or a lower cost alternative to flexible TPU.
SOLVING PROBLEMS WITH BIOBASED, SUSTAINABLE PLA AND RECYCLABILITY OF PET FOR HIGH-VALUE APPLICATIONS VIA SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION
Audrey Durin, Rudy Valette, Bruno Vergnes, Thierry Coupez, Chantal David, May 2010
Solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) can lead to in situ mechanochemistry and enhanced dispersion relative to melt-state processes. SSSP of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) results in low levels of branching and enhanced dispersion of heterogeneous nuclei, leading to increased melt viscosity and crystallizability, providing a solution to the problem of recycling PET for high-value applications. (PET undergoes molecular weight reduction during melt processing.) Adding 1 wt% microcrystalline cellulose to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) via SSSP can lead to major enhancements in crystallizability and materials with increased heat distortion temperature relative to neat PLA.
STANDARD FOR ENERGY RATING WITH RESIN DRYERS AND CLASSIFICATION OF DRY AIR QUALITY
Sonny Morneault , Andreas Vierling, May 2010
When it comes to resin drying, energy consumption is quickly becoming a key factor in the decision making process for one technology over another. However, drying energy consumption has several elements and key factors that affect the overall energy use of a dryer. It is a combination of heat-up energy and sustainable drying energy that are the elements that will, in the end, affect how much it costs to dry your resin on an annual basis.A uniform industry test standard would define the air capacity, basic load and kWh/unit of material. An industry test standard would allow users to plug in there given material, throughput and local energy rate, to calculate the true annual energy cost.
STERILE BARRIERS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES: FAILURE MODES AND MITIGATION
Adriana Knapkova, Libor Friedel, Bruce Dehning2, Jiri G. Drobny, May 2010
From sterilization to use, medical device packaging must provide a microbial barrier for the devices they protect. Reliability of this packaging is of the utmost importance since packaging materials must endure folding, rubbing, and a host of other mechanical and environmental stresses that can challenge the barriersƒ?? integrity. Pouches consist of flashspun high-density polyethylene (FS-HDPE) sheeting and laminates films composed of polyolefins and nylons. Case studies regarding sterile pouch failures that occurred at various stages of qualification testing and solutions for mitigating failures are presented. Common failure modes and mechanisms are discussed in detail.
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED HDPE AND CALCIUM SULFITE CRYSTALLITES
Gediminas Markevicius , Joshua D. Stoll , Vivak M. Malhotra , Charles E. Miller , Francois B. Botha, May 2010
Typically wood-plastic composites are manufactured from HDPE and wood byproducts. However to mitigate the concerns associated with the environment and costs attempts were made to develop structural composite materials from calcium sulfite hydrate (hannebachite) natural fibers and recycled HDPE. The hannebachite crystallites are produced during the scrubbing of coal combustion flue gases and have no commercial value. The structural thermal and mechanical behaviors of the composites as well as of raw materials were determined by SEM DSC DMA and flexural measurements. Our results suggest that it may be feasible to develop wood substitute composites without the use of wood or its byproducts. Flexural strength as high as 30 MPa was obtained.
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED HDPE AND CALCIUM SULFITE CRYSTALLITES
Gediminas Markevicius , Joshua D. Stoll , Vivak M. Malhotra , Charles E. Miller , Francois B. Botha, May 2010
Typically wood-plastic composites are manufactured from HDPE and wood byproducts. However, to mitigate the concerns associated with the environment and costs, attempts were made to develop structural composite materials from calcium sulfite hydrate (hannebachite), natural fibers, and recycled HDPE. The hannebachite crystallites are produced during the scrubbing of coal combustion flue gases and have no commercial value. The structural, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of the composites, as well as of raw materials, were determined by SEM, DSC, DMA, and flexural measurements. Our results suggest that it may be feasible to develop wood substitute composites without the use of wood or its byproducts. Flexural strength as high as 30 MPa was obtained.
SUBSTITUTION OF POLYLACTICACID (PLA) IN PLACE OF POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) IN TRANSPARENT SIGNAGE FOR RETAIL USE
Daniel Brittingham , Nicole Larson, May 2010
This project aims to investigate the material properties of Polylactic acid (PLA) and to compare them with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which is currently used in retail signage. There problems inherent in changing a process from an established material to a biodegradable polymer. The mechanical properties of PLA are under scrutiny to determine if it can be a reasonable substitute for PVC a non biodegradable plastic that must be land-filled or recycled at considerable cost after its post-consumer use. Many environmentalists suggest that biodegradable plastics can be substituted to fill the same roles as conventional polymers. PLA is a biodegradable polymer that is available in grades that are transparent and are manufacturable in most common thermoplastic processing methods including extrusion. PLAƒ??s substitution for PVC in this application can help to eliminate landfill and reduce overall pollution.
THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PHB SYNTHESIZED WITH VARIOUS HYDROXYVALERATE CONTENT FOR POTENTIAL USE IN FOOD PACKAGING
Sunny Modi , Kurt koelling , Yael Vodovotz, May 2010
PHB (Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) families of naturally occurring polymers are extracted from micro-organisms.PHB behaves similarly to conventional thermoplastics, yet are fully biodegradable in common composting conditions.To improve flexibility for potential food packaging applications, PHB can be synthesized with various copolymers such as 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV). The objective of this study was to characterize the thermal and rheological properties of PHB synthesized with various valerate contents and relate these findings to potential food packaging applications.
THERMAL STABILIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLY-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB) IN MELT EXTRUSION PART 1: POLY-OLIGOMERIC-SILSESQUIOXANE
Y. Shaked , H. Dodiuk , S. Kenig , C. Schwier , S. McCarthy, May 2010
Poly-Oligomeric-Silsesquioxane POSS nano modifier was examined as a thermal stabilizer for PHB.Melt compounding of Poly-Hydroxy-Butyrate PHB copolymers with different POSS moieties was performed.Reactive and non-reactive POSS nano modifiers were used. The effect of modification on PHB thermal stability was evaluated by changes in rheology and molecular weight. POSS modifiers with unique core-shell structures were found to significantly reduce the loss in molecular weight during melt mixing possibly by decreasing viscous-heating effects.
UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN FROM CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF OFF-GRADE POLYETYHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
Ali R. Zahedi, May 2010
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) [PET] from off-gradesof industrial manufacturer was depolymerised usingexcess ethylene glycol [EG] in the presence of metalacetate. Influences of the reaction time volume of EG and catalysts concentrations on the yield of theglycolysis products were investigated. In this study wehad three 3-level factors for reaction time volume ofEG and catalysts concentrations on the basis ofTaguchi's statistical method. The optimal conditionsare reaction time of 3 h molar ratio (EG to PET) of 5 weight ratio (catalyst to PET) of 0.25 wt%. Theglycolysis products were analysed for hydroxyl valueand identified by DSC and VPO. The optimum samplewas used to produce unsaturated polyester resin [UPR]by maleic anhydride [MA]. The samples alsocharacterized well by FT-IR 1HNMR and 13CNMR.
WEATHERING PERFORMANCE OF A SCRATCH RESISTANT WEATHERING PERFORMANCE OF A SCRATCH RESISTANT
T. M. Lewis, A. I. Isayev, J. Keum, May 2010
The weathering performance of a Lexan* copolycarbonate resin was studied against a benchmark PC resin. Known ISO, ASTM and SAE weathering protocols were used and observed differences explained. Lexan* copolycarbonate resin offers a scratch resistant polycarbonate solution that opens up new possibilities in terms of part performance. Key applications range from mobile phones to interior automotive trims and benefit from the elimination of secondary operations due to the increased hardness of the material. This can lead to costout opportunities and environmentally friendlier solutions where conventional protective hard coatings or painted surfaces are considered.
WELDABILITY OF BIOPLASTICS
S.B. Tan, P.R. Hornsby, M. McAfee, M.P. Kearns, M. McCourt, P.R. Hanna, May 2010
The cooling process in conventional rotational moulding has a relatively long cycle time. It is normally accomplished by external forced air convection and external water spray cooling. In some instances, an evaporative cooler is employed to create atomised fog external to the mould during the cooling cycle. Internal water spray cooling is an attractive approach to reduce the cycle time and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. It is shown that water spray cooling of polymers is affected by water droplet size and water droplet velocity. This paper outlines an introduction to the characterisation of water droplets. The effects of these parameters on water spray cooling of polymers are also presented, using a purpose built experimental test rig. With the growing demand for environmentally friendly biorenewable resources, there has been a parallel growth in the development of bioplastics. These include commercially available starch-derived plastics and plastics derived from renewable oil and proteins. As with any plastic, these new materials must often be joined to produce final products. This paper reviews impulse and ultrasonic welding of PLA as well as friction welding of plant protein-based plastics. It was found that each of these plastics can be welded with weld strengths matching the parent material strengths.
New leather- and rubber-waste composites for use in footwear
Manuel F. Almeida, Maria J. Ferreira, Fernanda Freitas, May 2010
A sustainable solution for hazardous waste from roughing and carding processes generates nontoxic rubber composites for use in shoe soles.
Chemical modification of flexible poly(vinyl chloride) by nucleophilic substitution
Toshiaki Yoshioka, Guido Grause, Tomohito Kameda, May 2010
A new method of removing chlorine from an everyday waste plastic promises to increase the amount of recyclable material.
Accelerating the crystallization of poly(lactic acid)
Changyu Shen, Defu Hu, Ming Li, Yaming Wang, May 2010
Combining nucleation agents and plasticizers enhances the material's crystallization rate and could extend its range of applications.
Nanofillers improve the mechanical properties of recycled polypropylene
Ahmed Elloumi, Alain Bourmaud, Sylvie Pimbert, June 2010
The impact and modulus of polypropylene reinforced with nanocalcium carbonate correlate with morphology, filler level, and the effect of recycling on the resin matrix.
Predicting starch transformation in twin screw extrusion
Bruno Vergnes, Franoise Berzin, July 2010
Dedicated software makes it possible to predict the change in the intrinsic viscosity of starch.
Degradation behavior of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters
Guoping Chen, August 2010
Structural changes of polyesters during in vitro incubation provide insights into their degradation that could be important for development of biomedical applications.
Reinforced biocomposites with guaranteed degradability in soil
Sigbritt Karlsson, Rosana Moriana , Amparo Ribes-Greus, August 2010
The addition of cotton fibers to a starch-based commercial material maintains its thermal stability and assures its biodegradation.


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