SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Polylactic Acid Tissue Scaffold fabricated by Twin Screw Extrusion and Microcellular Injection Molding
Haoyang Mi, Xin Jing, Brianna Jacques, Lih-Sheng Turng, Xiang-Fang Peng, May 2013

Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. They possess rigid and flexible mechanical properties. The TPU/PLA blend tissue scaffolds at different ratios were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques (a. k. a. MuCell) for the first time. Multiple test methods were used in this study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) verified the presence of the two components in the blends. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images affirmed that the PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix, and that the phase morphology further influenced the surface roughness of cells. The blends exhibited a wide range of mechanical properties that cover most human tissue requirements. It was found from DMA and viscosity tests that 25% PLA significantly reinforces the blends at low temperatures or deformation frequencies.

ToolingEDGE - High Performance and Sustainable Production
António Baptista, Dulcínia Santos, Elsa Henriques, May 2013

The strong emergence of new" economical and industrial regions on the globe supported by lower hand labor costs puts European Engineering & Tooling face to new challenges that evidence the necessity to develop new and revolutionary ways of making things. It is in this context and to answer to the new global challenges it was created an industrial and scientific Cluster the Portuguese Engineering and Tooling Cluster (E&T). This cluster represents an industrial value chain with specialized skills and competences from Design and Engineering to Tooling and Plastic Products. The E&T cluster is responsible for setting up a national strategy for the development and sustainability of this important economic sector combining a strong investment in technological and organizational innovation that will support a constant and progressive evolution on technical and organizational efficiency. The E&T strategic plan within 10 years is to be recognized worldwide as one of the most advanced in technological point of view and having the capacity to offer added value in the design and production of molds special tools and precision machined parts produced by injection or in materials with specific features for new applications. The R&D project ToolingEDGE - High Performance and Sustainable Production is one example of research activities being held by E&T cluster. The project aims to deploy technological solutions to prepare the E&T sector for sustainable competitiveness and to enable the penetration in new and/or added value markets considered strategic for the E&T notably: the aeronautics medical devices electronics automotive and packaging industries."

Toughening of Polylactide with Pre-heat Treated Natural Rubber
Chunmei Zhang, Yi Dan, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2013

Both polylactide (PLA) and natural rubber (NR) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. PLA possesses high strength and modulus but low toughness, while NR exhibits excellent elasticity and ductility. In view of their complementary properties, NR seems an ideal candidate to toughen PLA. To the best of our knowledge, PLA blends showed increased ductility only when more than 10 wt% rubber was added. This study demonstrates a significant improvement in the toughness of PLA by melt blending PLA with pre-heated NR. SEM studies showed that the rubber phase was uniformly dispersed in the PLA matrix. With as little as 1 wt% NR, the elongation at break and tensile toughness of PLA/NR blend were significantly improved over those of neat PLA (207% vs. 16% and 83 MJ/m3 vs. 9 MJ/m3, respectively) without loss in tensile modulus and stress. In addition, by blending in PLA with 20 wt% NR, samples obtained did not even break in the notched Charpy impact test. FTIR spectrum indicated that carbonyl groups were generated in NR chains after hot shearing and led to enhanced compatibility between PLA and NR, which accounted for the improved toughness

Using Novel Ethylene-maleic anhydride (EMAh) Copolymers To Upgrade Recycled Nylon To Match or Exceed Prime Virgin Nylon Performance
Ashok Adur, May 2013

Nylon is widely used in many applications. There is a vast amount of recycled nylon coming from the carpet and textile and other industries. Due to degradation and loss of viscosity, this recycled nylon has reduced performance and limited its use. The unique chemistry of alternating copolymers of ethylene and maleic anhydride provide several advantages for upgrading recycled nylon. This paper discusses the results obtained with compounding prime grade nylon as well as recycled nylon with the addition of small quantities of this copolymer and specific property improvements for applications in injection molded compounds. The resulting compounds are performance that can match or exceed prime virgin nylon at 30-50% cost savings.

UV Monocoat: Ad Advanced Coating Technology for Consumer Electronics
Renlong Gao, Kurt Humbert, May 2013

Surface coatings on plastic substrates with excellent physical performance, low application cost, and minimum environmental impact are highly desirable for various commercial applications. Here we describe PPG’s ultraviolet (UV) monocoat technology for consumer electronics, which afforded both protection and decoration of plastic substrates with a single-layer colored coating system. Studies demonstrated that UV monocoat applied on plastic computer and cellphone parts successfully met or exceeded customers’ specifications, showing good adhesion to plastic substrates, excellent abrasion and scratch resistance, good chemical resistance, and high weathering stability. UV monocoat also enabled a variety of colors with a wide range of gloss for decoration of plastic substrates. In addition, UV monocoat uniquely combined a single-layer design with UV cure technology, which significantly increased on-line coating capacity and efficiency and dramatically reduced application cost and environmental impact.

Vandar® High Impact Strength Polyester for Sporting Goods
Mukul Kaushik, Dirk Zierer, Jeanne Pilis, May 2013

andar® 2100 is an impact modified engineering thermoplastic resin developed to deliver consistent performance over a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions, primarily in injection molded articles. Vandar 2100 provides outstanding ductility and stiffness combined with the excellent chemical and environmental resistance properties of polyesters. The unreinforced and higher flexibility Vandar® grades fill the property gap between standard thermoplastic polyesters and elastomers. These plastics are easy to process including by injection molding and retain their impact strength down to -30 °C.

Susceptibility of plastified starch to biodegradation
Krzysztof Bajer, April 2013

Potato starch plastified with glycerol using a twin-screw extruder under different conditions can vary the susceptibility of the plastic to micro-organisms.

Bio-waste composites: A comparative study of polypropylene compounds reinforced with waste agricultural residue
Tanmay Pathak, Jason Hamilton &, James Preston, March 2013

Importance of natural fiber composites (E3): Environmental friendly ¤ Energy reduction ¤ Economically viable; Classification of Natural Fibers; RheVision®: Agro Waste Bio Composites (Proprietary Line at RheTech Inc.): Goal : To develop a finished commercial product base utilizing agro waste natural fibers.; Materials, Methods, Testing and Results; Conclusions

Trends in Biobased Chemicals
Patrick B. Smith , March 2013

Petrochemical Industry Context: Biobased Feedstocks • Biobased Chemicals Commercial Activities • Case Studies of Commercial Ventures • Conclusions/Forecasts

Packaging Design for Sustainability: Solutionism in Context
Erica Ocampo, March 2013

Context is the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs : environment, setting

PLA Material Processing The Energy-Saving Packaging Solution
William B. Goldfarb, March 2013

PLA Processors: Save 10’s of $ 1,000’s/Year in energy costs; Incur no more capital equipment costs than running PET (May actually be less depending on fuel type); Receive the inherent benefits of PLA: Renewable resource ▪ Compost-ability ▪ Recyclability; Are Pioneers !! Handling characteristics developed over historical experience with PLA manufacturer and processors

Biobased Engineering Polymers Overview of Commercial Technology for Automotive
Rick Bell, March 2013

RENEWABLY SOURCED and BIO-BASED define the same thing. It refers to a material that contains carbon originating from a renewable plant source. DuPont™ Renewably Sourced™ materials contain a minimum of 20% renewably sourced ingredients by weight. RENEWABLY SOURCED can include BIODEGRADABLE products that can be broken down by living organisms like bacteria. It also includes durable goods that are designed for long life. Products discussed in this presentation are for high performance durable good type applications.

Understanding textile fractures
Toan Vu-Khanh, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Ennouri Triki, March 2013

The ability of fabrics to withstand tears can be easily predicted and understood in terms of their yarn and thickness.

Loosely-grafted and star-shaped polymethacrylates with epoxide groups
Dorota Neugebauer , Anna Mielanczyk, Paulina Maksym-Bebenek, February 2013

Reactive epoxide groups were incorporated into loosely-grafted or star-shaped copolymers synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate in atom transfer radical polymerization.

Green polylactide blends for durable applications
Yeh Wang , Shu-M. Chiao, January 2013

Modifying polylactide/polycarbonate blends with a poly(butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) compatibilizer improves interfacial adhesion, to achieve high impact strength and heat resistance.

Key factors affecting processing of natural fiber composites
Exequiel Rodriguez , Gaston Francucci, Edu Ruiz, Analia Vazquez, December 2012

Processing variables must be considered when replacing synthetic with natural fibers in polymer matrix composites.

Synthesis and properties of acrylate hydrogels as stimuli-responsive materials
Nermin Orakdogen, November 2012

Intelligent materials prepared from poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and its copolymers have attracted much interest for their thermal and pH-stimuli response.

Chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering: relationship of structure and properties
Carmina Gartner, October 2012

Chitosan, a widely used biopolymer, exhibits a close relationship between its structure and properties in solution and in the solid state.

Super-tough poly(lactic acid) blends
Yulin Feng, Wei Jiang, Guiyan Zhao, September 2012

Using poly(ethylene octene) grafted with glycidyl methacrylate to modify poly(lactic acid) by reactive blending improves reactive compatibilization and achieves high impact strength.

Antioxidant effects of natural compounds on green composite materials
Eduardo Fages, Rafael Balart, Teodomiro Boronat, Jose Manuel Espana Giner , Rosana Moriana, August 2012

Naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds can improve the thermal resistance of a bio-composite, increasing the degradation temperature of the material by as much as 130%.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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