The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF USED MATERIALS FOR PLASTIC RECYCLE
This paper describes the evaluation of mechanical test results of compounded used polyethylene (PE) pipes and plastic materials for recycle. A compounding technology of used PE pipes for gas distribution and waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles using a compatibilizer was firstly studied. Then the other combinations of used plastic materials and new resins were also investigated for material uses and high-performance polymer alloys.
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC CRIMP FITTING ASSEMBLIES
This paper covers a failure analysis of a cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) hot and cold water plumbing system that utilized plastic insert fittings that were fastened with stainless steel clamp rings. The failed fittings exhibited features that led several different investigators to associate the failures with fatigue and slow crack growth. Our examination of the fractures indicated that the failures were due to high stress that caused crazing and subsequent fast fracture of the fittings. Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) may also have been involved as a contributor to the failures.
BIODEGRADATION OF COMPOSTABLE PLASTIC SNACK BAGS WITH METALLIZED COATING PER ASTM D-5338 TEST METHOD
Biodegradable and compostable plastic materials that are used as snack bags demonstrated biodegradation in a laboratory compost environment per ASTM D-5338 test method. PLA-based compostable plastic, Kraft paper and cellulose paper degraded at least 90% in 120 days and met the degradation time requirement in the ASTM D-5338 standard. LDPE bag did not meet the degradation requirement in the ASTM standards. PLA-based snack bag met the phytotoxicity requirement of ASTM D-6400 for healthy plant response in the compost soil. Lastly, PLA-based degraded samples and other compostable degraded samples did not leave residuals of lead or Chromium in the compost soil.
FATIGUE IMPROVEMENTS IN TOUGHENED EPOXY SYSTEMS
Epoxy composites offer high performance and proven reliability in many demanding applications including components for aerospace and wind turbine blades. While in operation, these components are subjected to repeated cyclic loadings that result in material fatigue. For example, wind turbine blades are subjected to significant stresses from their movement, wind and other environmental factors such as temperature cycling and humidity. The expected life of a composite structure is based partially on the resistance of the materials utilized to fatigue failures.
GREEN MANDATES OPENING UP A NEW SALES CHANNEL AND GROWTH POTENTIAL FOR MATERIALS COMPANIES
Audience members will learn the following: › Overview of the six green mandates and the opportunities they create for materials companies › Discuss which technologies are currently winning government contracts and why › Identify where the money is being spent currently and trends for future spending › Review best practices in how materials companies can access to those funds to grow their business
BIO-PLASTIC SHEETS FROM MBM PROTEINS
The processability of meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) proteins via thermal routes was investigated. Batch compounding and compression molding were used to determine optimal compositions and processing parameters. The sheets were studied for their water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and environmental aging effects. The relative humidity (RH) of the ambient air played a significant role in the processing of the compounded protein.. Sheets were formed at 40-50% RH. As expected, mechanical properties of the sheets were also found to be moisture sensitive. Particle size of MBM raw material was also found to significantly affect the texture and mechanical properties of sheets.
HOW GREEN POLYMERS FIT IN YOUR BUSINESS AND WHERE THEY MAY NOT
Green polymers are being brought to market in order to capitalize on a perceived demand from environmentally conscious consumers. Plastics industry processors and users need to know, however, just what are the particular characteristics of different green polymers and which specific end use demands they fulfill? Are they broad-based products or a series of niche specialties? This paper will address the relative characteristics of current green polymers from point of view of end use market needs, and how best to meet these needs, in terms of economics, performance, and utility.
IMPROVING THE POROSITY OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
Compatibilized polypropylene/polysulfone membranes were made using two environmentally-friendly processes. One way was through uniaxially stretching and another through biaxially stretching films. This paper will compare the improvements in mechanical properties obtained by both methods as well as compare interfacial tension measurements. Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.
IN SITU OBSERVATION OF POLYSTYRENE FOAMING PROCESSES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE-NITROGEN GAS BLENDS
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) are environmental-friendly blowing agents, but they pose various technical challenges to plastic foaming industries in producing high quality foams with uniform cell morphologies. Previous studies demonstrated improved foam morphologies when CO2/N2 blends were used, but the fundamental mechanisms of such foaming processes are not thoroughly understood. This study examines the foaming behavior of polystyrene (PS) blown with CO2/N2 blends by observing their foaming processes in situ.
CHARACTERIZATION, MICROSCALE REPLICATION, AND USE OF A NOVEL BIOELASTOMER IN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
Novel materials possessing physical, mechanical, and chemical properties similar to those found in vivo provide a potential platform in building artificial microenvironments for therapeutic applications and well-defined biointerfaces for examining differentiation potential in stem cell biology. Poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS), a novel biocompatible and biodegradable elastomer is one such material. It provides an invaluable platform for in vitro culture studies to direct the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into specific lineages and functional cell types. This paper presents work in PGS material characterization, synthesis, microscale manufacturing, and investigations related to its use as a susbtrate for in vitro hMSC culture.
CONFIRMATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE) AND MALEATED LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE-g-MA) INFUSED WITH NANOCLAY IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
Nanoclay fillers have the ability to enhance the thermo-mechanical, barrier and flame resistant properties of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). One method employed to successfully disperse nanoclay powders into polymers that is both inexpensive and deemed environmentally friendly is supercritical carbon dioxide processing. With supercritical carbon dioxide processing, Cloisite 93A was infused into LLDPE and Maleated LLDPE (LLDPE-g-MA). The infusion of Cloisite 93A was confirmed by XRD and FTIR analysis. In addition, XRD analysis suggests that clay intercalation was achieved for select runs. And FTIR analysis was used to determine the amount of nanoclay infused into the polymer.
NATURAL FIBRE PULPING AND REFINING USING EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY
A study on structural and mechanical properties of natural fibres using co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder for refining fibres is reported. Using low-cost raw materials for the preparation of bio-based and biodegradable composites for many industrial applications. A range of techniques used to characterise these materials will be discussed, including morphology, DSC, SEM, other experimental techniques like mechanical property evaluations will also be discussed.
OPEN CELL MICROCELLULAR FOAMS OF POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) BASED BLENDS WITH SEMI-INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS
Interpenetrating polymer network structures can be used to control cell density and averaged cell size of poly-LD-lactic acid foams. Polymer systems with and without cross-linking agent were used as templates for environmentally benign batch foaming processes in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The foamed samples were characterized in terms of cell density, averaged cell size, and open cell content (OCC).
PLASTIC PACKAGING: A CURRENT PERSEPCTIVE ON SUSTAINABILITY
Five plastic packaging producers, machine manufacturers, and/or resin manufacturers are studied to conduct case study research to understand the approaches they are taking to use sustainable packaging. This industry view point is conducted to generate information regarding environmental pressures these companies are facing and the strategies they are implementing to be competitive and sustainable.
DEVELOPING PHB/WOOD FOUR/CELL DEBRIS COMPOSITES THROUGH EXTRUSION
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based wood plastic composites (WPCs) are superior to ordinary petroleum-based WPCs in terms of environmental protection. However, PHB is more expensive than many of the commodity petrochemical polymers because of the costly separation and purification processes, which could be avoided by directly using PHB-laden bacteria to produce PHB-based WPC. This study investigated the processing parameters, mechanical properties, and water resistance of the extruded composites with varying component ratios. The results indicate that some of the composites had outstanding properties compared with a commercial WPC. Therefore, this renewable WPC can replace petroleum-based WPCs on current markets without sacrificing product performance.
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY OPEN-CELL ACOUSTIC FOAMS
Although polymeric open-cell foams provide adequate absorption at medium and high frequencies, they are, as the majority of absorbing materials, inefficient in the low frequency range. Through this study, open-cell polymeric foams were fabricated from Polypropylene (PP) and Polylactide (PLA) by a novel fabrication method combining particulate leaching technique and compression molding. Fabricated foams were compared with a sample of Polyurethane (PU) foam. The materials used in this study are either recyclable or biodegradable which is of great importance considering huge amount of foams used as acoustic absorbers in various industries
PREPARATION OF FLAME-RETARDANT POLYOLEFIN FOAM USING A PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUND
Highly expanded polyolefin foam was made flame-retardant with the use of an environmentally friendly phosphorous flame retardant. An aqueous solution of a derivative of carboxylic acid of phenylphosphonic acid was externally applied to already-made partially-open-celled foam to achieve desired flame-retardant foam. An effective flame retardant level as low as 0.1 pars per one hundred parts of resin provided self-extinguishing foam. The compound could also be directly fed in the extrusion process. This finding opens an avenue to achieving a low-cost thermal insulation material from polypropylene.
DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER FOAMS - TRENDS AND SUSTAINABILITY
Fueled by global megatrends such as energy efficiency, the demand for enhanced heat insulation and light weight solutions is steadily increasing. Due to their unique properties, polymer foams are regarded as an ideal candidate for tackling these challenges. At a minimum of raw material consumption, cellular polymers are tailor-made, cost-efficient, sustainable solutions. Despite the already high performance of today's foams, their innovation potential is still far from being tapped. Novel materials and processes provide a pathway to superior products for existing and new applications. In this paper, BASF's approach of innovative and sustainable particle foam products will be presented.
PROGRESS TOWARD MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The production of organic pigments is quickly moving from the United States and Europe to China, India and other developing countries. The environmental impact of this trend and creative efforts being undertaken by emerging pigment producers to reduce pollution and conserve natural resources will be explored.
PROPERTIES OF POLY (PROPYLENE CARBONATE) PRODUCED VIA SK ENERGY'S GREENPOL TECHNOLOGY
Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is an amorphous polymer made by alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide. SK Energy developed its own proprietary technology with a highly active catalyst for this polymerization and has begun to produce PPC in its continuous process type pilot plant since late 2008 with a trade name GreenPolTM. In this paper, we are describing the typical properties of PPC such as general physical properties, barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and smoke density along with some rheological properties.
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