The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY OPEN-CELL ACOUSTIC FOAMS
Although polymeric open-cell foams provide adequate absorption at medium and high frequencies, they are, as the majority of absorbing materials, inefficient in the low frequency range. Through this study, open-cell polymeric foams were fabricated from Polypropylene (PP) and Polylactide (PLA) by a novel fabrication method combining particulate leaching technique and compression molding. Fabricated foams were compared with a sample of Polyurethane (PU) foam. The materials used in this study are either recyclable or biodegradable which is of great importance considering huge amount of foams used as acoustic absorbers in various industries
PREPARATION OF FLAME-RETARDANT POLYOLEFIN FOAM USING A PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUND
Highly expanded polyolefin foam was made flame-retardant with the use of an environmentally friendly phosphorous flame retardant. An aqueous solution of a derivative of carboxylic acid of phenylphosphonic acid was externally applied to already-made partially-open-celled foam to achieve desired flame-retardant foam. An effective flame retardant level as low as 0.1 pars per one hundred parts of resin provided self-extinguishing foam. The compound could also be directly fed in the extrusion process. This finding opens an avenue to achieving a low-cost thermal insulation material from polypropylene.
DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER FOAMS - TRENDS AND SUSTAINABILITY
Fueled by global megatrends such as energy efficiency, the demand for enhanced heat insulation and light weight solutions is steadily increasing. Due to their unique properties, polymer foams are regarded as an ideal candidate for tackling these challenges. At a minimum of raw material consumption, cellular polymers are tailor-made, cost-efficient, sustainable solutions. Despite the already high performance of today's foams, their innovation potential is still far from being tapped. Novel materials and processes provide a pathway to superior products for existing and new applications. In this paper, BASF's approach of innovative and sustainable particle foam products will be presented.
PROGRESS TOWARD MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The production of organic pigments is quickly moving from the United States and Europe to China, India and other developing countries. The environmental impact of this trend and creative efforts being undertaken by emerging pigment producers to reduce pollution and conserve natural resources will be explored.
PROPERTIES OF POLY (PROPYLENE CARBONATE) PRODUCED VIA SK ENERGY'S GREENPOL TECHNOLOGY
Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is an amorphous polymer made by alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide. SK Energy developed its own proprietary technology with a highly active catalyst for this polymerization and has begun to produce PPC in its continuous process type pilot plant since late 2008 with a trade name GreenPolTM. In this paper, we are describing the typical properties of PPC such as general physical properties, barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and smoke density along with some rheological properties.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, PLLA crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
EFFECT OF EXPANDABLE THERMOPLASTIC MICROSPHERES ON MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDED POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA): MICROSTRUCTURE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, AND TENSILE PROPERTIES
Expandable thermoplastic microspheres were employed as chemical blowing agents to produce biodegradable polylactic acid parts. The surface characteristics of the samples were evaluated with a 2D surface roughness analyzer and a white-light 3D surface profiler. It was found that microcellular injection molded parts with ETM exhibit good surface quality, similar to conventional solid injection molded parts. The tensile properties of injection molded PLA samples with variable ETM weight ratios have been investigated. As shown by the testing results, the cell microstructures play an important role in the surface quality and mechanical properties.
EFFECT OF EXTRUSION DEVOLATILIZATION ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF AN END-CAPPED POLYPHENYLENE ETHER COPOLYMER
Methacrylate terminated telechelic polyphenylene ether copolymer is produced by reacting methacrylic acid anhydride with a telechelic PPE copolymer. The reaction takes place in a solvent which needs to be removed in an isolation step. The isolation can be done by precipitation with an anti-solvent or by removing the solvent in a devolatilization unit. Avoidance in the use of an anti-solvent is of interest to make the process more environmentally friendly. This paper describes the feasibility of the use of devolatilization extrusion for the isolation step and investigates the effect devolatilization extrusion has on the structure and properties of the copolymer.
EFFECT OF PELLET SIZES ON MOISTURE ABSORPTION AND THERMAL DECOMPOSITION KINETIC OF RECYCLED PET/RECYCLED PP BLEND
This study considers the effects of pellet geometry on its moisture absorption and thermal decomposition kinetic of recycled polyethylene-terephthalate (RPET) and recycled polypropylene (RPP) blend. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) was used for the kinetic study, which it was suitable for thermal degradation of RPET/RPP blend in N2 while the second order polynomial was fitted for degradation in air. Finer powders were found to have higher moisture absorption rates due to their large surface area although they could also be easily dried. Meanwhile, larger pellets exhibited higher degradation activation energies, which suggest that they are more resistant to thermal degradation than smaller grains.
SCRATCH VISIBILITY: ERICHSEN DELTA L AND ASTM/ISO ASSESSMENTS OF TPO RESINS
Automotive parts are constantly subjected to harsh environmental abuse but still must meet consumer's aesthetic scrutiny. Surface durability is especially important and scratch resistance has been an area of interest for design experts and polymer engineers. Two significant approaches to measuring this phenomenon have emerged: Erichsen Delta L and ASTM/ISO progressive load test. This paper will compare assessments obtained from the two methodologies.
SECOND GENERATION BIO-FOAMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
The use of seed oils derived polyols in high end polyurethane applications has been limited in the past by the reduced compatibility and reactivity. Flexible foams with up to 25 % substitution of the petroleum-based polyols with renewable component were produced and characterized, based on a new generation of plant oil based polyol. The technology brings significant enhancement in foam elastic properties and improved processing characteristics, allowing for a potentially higher penetration in automotive seating applications.
EFFECT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL pH ON THE CORROSION BIOINHIBITIVE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCHES
The effect of the environmental pH on the properties of modified cassava starches as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel, was evaluated. Two species were tested: activated (AS) and carboxymethylated starch (CMS). The species were studied using electrochemical measurements in tap water under neutral and alkaline conditions. It was found that protection provided by these biopolymers is dependent on the acidity of the system. Their efficiency is related to the formation of a chelate between macromolecules and ferrous cations. When lowering the pH, the active groups tend to be protonated, hindering the protection afforded for these biopolymers.
ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSING OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING APPLICATIONS
In order to evaluate an economical alternative for the recycling of commingled plastics, pellets of Polyethylene (PE) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), two incompatible widely used polymers, were compression-molded using radio-frequency (RF) heating and conventional conductive heating (CH). The main advantage of the RF system over the CH system is the shorter processing time. However, the fast heating in the RF process caused PVC degradation and reduction of the mechanical properties of the molded products. To solve this problem Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) was placed, as a process-specific additive, at the interface between the PVC and PE, using a solvent coating technique.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECYCLED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE BRIDGES
Reinforced thermoplastic composite lumber (RTCL) sourced from recycled materials is an emerging technology available for heavily loaded infrastructure applications. RTCL materials offer a sustainable alternative and many advantages over traditional construction materials, like wood and steel. Research, development, and experimental projects over the past 15 years, have culminated in several RTCL high load capacity military installations. RTCL advantages and high load capacity infrastructure applications are reviewed in this work.
ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE PBT BASED ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS
This paper provides insights into a newly launched portfolio of environmentally progressive products. These molding compositions are based on a polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) that is made by chemical regeneration of post consumer recycle polyethylene terephthalate (PCR PET) and converted into PBT. These products can then be used in a variety of automotive and consumer applications. These new products' manufacturing processes require less energy and non-renewable fossil fuels as compared to the manufacturing processes of conventional fossil fuel based materials. We will present the comparison of properties results of molding compositions using this new technology and traditional PBT will be presented.
EVALUATION OF BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYESTER RESINS WITH INCREASED GREEN CONTENT
Three different biodegradable copolyesters with increased green content (starting from 31 %) made from recycled post consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were evaluated in comparison to commercial poly(butylene terephthalate-co-adipate) (PBAT) in terms of thermal, rheology, and physical properties. The melting temperature of the resins is lower compared to commercial PBAT due to the presence of isophthalate and traces of diethylene glycol (DEG) linkages from PET. The melt flow values are 2.5 times higher than those of commercial PBAT, which has extensive branching. New resins show low crystallinity, high flexibility, and no break at maximum elongation compared to commercial PBAT.
EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE TO AUTOMOTIVE WINDSHIELD WASHER FLUID
Polymethylmethacrylate material (PMMA) is used in several automotive exterior applications such as exterior appliques and lighting lenses. There are different grades of PMMA that are commonly used for automotive exterior applications. This paper examines the chemical resistance of different grades of PMMA that are commonly used in automotive exterior applications to automotive windshield washer fluid under different strains. The exterior automotive parts are subjected to harsh environments. The parts are exposed to a range of environmental elements such as chemicals, sunlight, rain, snow, cold and hot temperatures. This study focuses on the chemical exposure of PMMA to windshield washer fluid.
THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-BASED/BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN FOOD PACKAGING
Food packaging from bio-based and biodegradable polymeric materials is a relevant topic in today's market with a global emphasis toward sustainability. Physical properties of these natural and synthetic polymers, along with biodegradation rates in the marine environment, have been examined and compared to one another. Major food packaging requirements such as gas barrier, moisture sensitivity, mechanical strength, and service temperature are the focus areas for this research.
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS WITH POLYPROPYLENE
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
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