SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF PLA STEREOCOMPLEX WITH IMPACT MODIFIERS
Bumsuk Lee, Byoung-Uk Nam, Dongseok Jeong, Miok Jang, ChaeHwan Hong, May 2011
Polylactide, polyester derived from renewable resources, can be synthesized using either L-lactide or D-lactide. A unique crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) stereocomplex(SC) was observed when a PLLA/PDLA blend was subjected to the specific melting conditions. Therefore, we tried to blend PLLA and PDLA at overall compositions to form PLA stereocomplexes. Moreover, impact modifier was added to enhance the mechanical properties such as impact strength. The presence of the SC in the PLLA matrix was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal and mechanical property of stereocomplexes were investigated by DSC, HDT, Izod impact tester, UTM.
THERMOFORMABLE BRIGHT FILM FOR TPO APPLICATIONS
Thomas Barr, May 2011
Thermoformable Fluorex Bright Film was developed to emulate the appearance of plated chrome. However, unlike plated chrome, Bright Film is flexible and thermoformable and can be applied to TPO. The film technology is environmentally friendly and cost-effective, and it has practical applications in various manufacturing processes, such as insert injection molding, thick-sheet thermoforming and extrusion lamination processes. Backed by successful weathering and other testing results, Bright Film has been accepted by the marketplace to accommodate or replace chrome plating as a decorative material for both interior and exterior finishes in the automotive and other industries.
UV CURABLE COATINGS FOR CONTAINERS AND CLOSURES
Meaghan Farley, May 2011
The containers and closures market utilizes numerous decorating techniques on a variety of plastic and glass substrates. These decorating methods need to be functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. UV curable coatings can offer value to this market by providing high performance decorative coatings that are cost effective, easy to process and environmentally friendly. This paper will discuss the benefits of using UV curable coatings as an alternative to other ways of decorating containers, some challenges encountered in formulating coatings to meet all specifications of the containers and closures market, and typical performance and processing requirements.
Structure and mechanical properties of polymer blends incorporating waste PET
Ahmad Arefazar, Somayeh Lashgari, Soheila Lashgari , Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz, June 2011
Adding a compatibilizer to blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and recycled engineering plastic results in better mixing as well as products with enhanced properties.
A new platform for creating versatile nonwoven mats
Caroline Schauer , Marjorie Austero, June 2011
Materials suitable for filtration, sensing, and other applications can be made from composite mats prepared by electrospinning crosslinked chitosan with carbon black.
Mixed monolayers of biodegradable polymers and an organo-modified clay
Atsuhiro Fujimori, July 2011
Ultrathin hybrid films form highly-ordered layered structures and 2D lattices of long alkyl chains extending from the montmorillonite surface.
More cost-effective, superior biodegradable food packaging
Vimal Katiyar , Hemant Nanavati, July 2011
A new catalyst complex enables a precursor polymer nanocomposite to yield a high-molecular-weight, highly crystalline poly(lactic acid)-clay nanocomposite through solid-state polymerization.
Bionanocomposite foams with strong dimensional stability
Yottha Srithep, Shaoqin Gong, Lih-Sheng Turng, Srikanth Pilla, Alireza Javadi , Craing Clemons, July 2011
Microcellular injection molding can be used to fabricate lightweight, tough, and cost-effective biodegradable polymer composites.
Clay improves sustainability of polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites
Xiaoran Zheng , Marianne Gilbert, July 2011
Various processing methods are tested to examine the resulting properties of nanocomposites composed of clay and polyvinyl chloride.
Improved mechanical properties of a polylactide thermoplastic elastomer
Jie Ren , Qian Zhong, Qinfeng Wang, August 2011
A high-molecular-weight copolymer blend based on poly(lactic acid), possessing both amorphous and crystalline segments, features excellent mechanical performance and thermal properties.
Mechanical & Impact Response of Recycled Thermoplastic & Flyash Foam Composites
Uday Vaidya, September 2011
The heavy transport industry has a significant amount of scrap generated in the manufacture of parts such as trailer bodies and structural components. Presently that scrap is landfilled. This paper presents the processing and resulting properties of recycled thermoplastic composites into useful products for reuse in transportation and related applications.
Sustainability with Automotive Carbon Fibre Composites: Reclaimed Carbon Fibre — cPBT Thermoplastic Composite
Jackie Rehkopf, September 2011
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Fatigue Performance of SMC Composite Material Under Different Environmental Damage & Temperature Conditions
Justin Hunt, September 2011
The Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) a partnership of Chrysler Group LLC Ford Motor Company General Motors Company and the U.S. Department of Energy conducts pre-competitive research on structural and semi-structural polymer composites to advance high strength lightweight solutions in automotive technology. An ACC focal project concerning the development of a structural composite underbody was established to provide methodologies and data for each ACC member company to implement lightweight cost-effective structural composites in high volume vehicles. This objective will be fulfilled through design analysis fabrication and testing of a structural composite underbody. A key design element required for implementation of the underbody structure is an understanding of the affects of environmental temperature and impact damage on the axial fatigue performance of the SMC composite material selected for the underbody structure fabrication. Research efforts have been made on fatigue performance of different type of composite materials (Ref. 1-5). In this study specimens were tested with no damage as well as two levels of impact damage. Environmental temperatures for the undamaged specimens were -40°C 21°C and 80°C. It was observed that fatigue life increased at low temperature conditions and decreased at high temperatures. The affect of temperature had a greater influence on fatigue life than the impact damage in this study. Temperature increases as measured at the specimen surfaces were observed as test frequency increased. Similar observations were made by Bellenger et al (Ref.6). The relationship between stress loading frequency and temperature will be investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopy will be used to examine the crack locations and characteristics for specimens tested under different conditions.
Polyacrylonitrile/acrylamide-based carbon fibers prepared using solvent-free coagulation
Norhaniza Yusof , Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, September 2011
Polymer precursors of carbon fibers made using an environmentally friendly process show mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those prepared by conventional methods.
Bioplastic nano-reinforcement extracted from phormium leaf fibers
Carlo Santulli, Marco Monti, Jose Maria Kenny, Elena Fortunati, Luigi Torre, Debora Puglia, November 2011
Cellulose nanofibers from a native New Zealand plant are extracted for use as fillers for biodegradable polymers.
2,5-FURANDICARBOXYLIC ACID; A VERSATILE BUILDING BLOCK FOR A VERY INTERESTING CLASS OF POLYESTERS
Matheus A. Dam | Gert-Jan M. Gruter |, Laszlo Sipos | Ed de Jong | Dirk Den Ouden, November 2011
Avantium is developing a next generation bioplastics based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), called “YXY building blocks”, which can be produced on the basis of sugars and other, non-food, carbohydrates. Avantium aims to replace oil-based polyesters (such as PET) with Furanics polyesters (such as PEF) in a wide range of applications, including bottles and carpets.
AUTOMOTIVE SUNROOF SYSTEMS AND FRAMES IN XIRAN® SMA/ABS
Henri-Paul Benichou, November 2011
Automotive Sunroof Systems, which have become a must have for the added comfort and styling to today s cars, increasingly rely on engineering plastics functionalities to replace metals. Structural and semi-structural Sunroof module components, Sunroof frames in particular, typically need to meet a wide range of technical requirements, with a clear focus on integration of functions, safety, cost and weight reduction. The glass-reinforced materials, thermoplastics and thermosets, currently used for Sunroof frames are mostly based on PBT/ASA, PBT, PA, PP and unsaturated polyester SMC. These products are not a perfect match for the application needs of today and the future. Glass-reinforced SMA/ABS on the other hand offers an ideal, unique combination of properties required in Sunroof frames and systems. SMA/ABS-GF compounds such as Polyscope s Xiran® SG grades have clear technical and commercial benefits: • high dimensional stability and precision • very low warpage, compliance to mold cavity shape • good performance at low wall thicknesses • high creep resistance • excellent adhesion without surface treatment • low density, high economic value • good chemical resistance • easy recyclablility with efficient waste streams.
CBT AS A NOVEL MATRIX MATERIAL AND ITS PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR COMPOSITES
Gabor Balogh, November 2011
Cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) is a novel thermoplastic matrix material for composites. Besides its low viscosity (0,02 Pas) and superior mechanical properties CBT has some other advantages over conventional matrix materials. During its polymerization no by-product is being made and it is easy to recycle. But processing of CBT is complicated and may results in a brittle material. Polycaprolactone (PCL) as an additive for CBT will also be introduced to increase toughness. In this paper the proper amount of PCL is determined to obtain a ductile material and a method is described how to fabricate prepregs and composites.
CHAIN EXTENSION OF RECYCLED POLYAMIDES : HOW TO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF RECYCLED PA IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
Elodie Gaouyat, November 2011
The present work attempts to implement reactive compatibilisation of blends of recycled engineering plastics, more particularly the case of recycled PA66 contaminated by recycled PA6. Low molecular weight, high Tg Styrene-Maleic Anhydride copolymers were tested as chain extenders / compatibilizers. It appeared that the addition of 2% by weight of SMA to an incompatible system of recycled PA6 and PA66 improved both ductility and impact performance by factors of at least 10 and 1.5 respectively. Moreover, high Tg SMA improved performances at elevated temperature, partly due to its ability to effectively crosslink but also because of its inherent heat resistance.
MOLD OPTIMIZATION FOR METAL INSERT INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Massimo Natalini | Marco Sasso, November 2011
High quality, coupled with high efficiency of the process are two of the most important requirements for goods intended for automotive market. The case study here presented demonstrates how to satisfy quality requirements and increase production efficiency, while reducing production waste. An injection molding process with metal insert has been analyzed. New shape for mold feeding system has been obtained using Hagen-Poiseuille law as guideline and FE model to verify performance of proposed solutions.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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