The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITES FROM EPOXIDIZED LINSEED OIL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INJECTION MOLDING OF WHEAT-STRAW/HDPE COMPOSITES
Filling polymers with wheat straw can be environmentally responsible and reduce cost. Nowadays most composites with natural fibers are processed by compression molding. This study examined the feasibility of manufacturing wheat-straw and high-density polyethylene composites by injection molding. MFI and thermal analysis of composites with different wheat straw contents were characterized. Mechanical properties of injection molded composites were measured. It has been found the melt points of all composites were about 135C. The fluidity, tensile and impact strengthes of the composites decreased while the wheat straw content increased. However, the flexural strength increased slightly with the increase in wheat-straw content.
EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY OF RAW NATURAL RUBBER FROM NEW CLONES OF HEVEA BRASILIENSIS
Natural rubber (NR) is a biopolymer whose properties depend on the structure of the 1,4-cis polyisoprene chains, non-rubber constituents, environmental conditions. NR has been characterized by traditional methods, but these cannot effectively account for clone's differences. The aim of this work is to use extensional rheology to characterize and differentiate NR samples as for clone type and season of the year. Three IAC 300 series and RRIM 600 clones of Hevea brasiliensis tapped between October 2006 and August 2008 were investigated. The extensional viscosity varied considerably and was more sensitive than any other traditional property, being fundamental for monitoring purposes.
EXTERIOR UV CURABLE TOPCOAT FOR PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION APPLICATIONS
Because of the growing environmental concerns with chrome plating, finishers have been requesting greener alternatives. UV coatings for multi-purpose decoration have been used for several years. However, these coatings do not have the required durability to replace chrome plating. Red Spot has recently developed and launched a UV-curable topcoat for PVD that provides performance characteristics needed to pass the OEMs toughest requirements. This paper addresses the current chrome plating process, challenges associated with developing durable coatings for PVD, an explanation of material application, a list of advantages that the UV/PVD decorative process encompasses, and targeted end applications.
TRITICALE STARCH BASED BIOPLASTICS
Triticale is being developed and aimed as an industrial crop and biorefinery feedstock for the Canadian manufacturing industry within the CTBI networking. In this paper the potential of triticale starch for the TPS/polymer blend fabrication was explored in terms of the starch morphology, crystallization structure, and the TPS (thermoplastic starch) rheology properties. The possibility of using triticale to make 100% biobased blown film was investigated using a small lab-scale film blown line. Film thickness of 25 um was obtained successfully for the triticale starch based PLA/TPS blends.
ULTRASONIC CUTTING OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) FILMS
Ultrasonic cutting systems are employed with materials that are difficult to cut with standard mechanical systems. The cutting knife/edge typically vibrates at a frequency of 20-60 kHz, heating the substrate during the cutting and simultaneously sealing the cut edges. Polylactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic material derived from starch and sugar, is relatively brittle compared to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which has similar mechanical properties. This brittleness is problematic during mechanical cutting, which produces micro-cracks that further embrittle the material.
GASOLINE ABSORPTION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION
This paper evaluates the potential use of biodegradable polymer for fuel system components by considering operating conditions. Organic liquid diffusion into biodegradable polymer was observed by fuel immersion at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 50§C until the equilibrium condition was achieved. During the immersion time, mass uptake and length swelling were recorded periodically. The data were plotted for diffusion coefficient calculation at each temperature. Changes in mechanical properties were also investigated through tensile, flexural and impact testing. The results resemble the impact of gasoline absorption on biodegradable polymers when used for the under-hood components of a vehicle.
IMPROVING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE RECYCLED STREAMS USING POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMERS AND FUNCTIONALIZED POLYOLEFINS.
The ability to be recycled is an important attribute for many plastics. By melting and reprocessing thermoplastics for re-use the carbon footprint can typically be reduced compared to the use of virgin materials. The benefits of incorporating recycle content into new and existing applications, however, must be tempered by the reality that recycled plastics may not have the same performance as virgin materials due to either 1) degradation by weathering/aging, 2) contamination, or 3) thermo-mechanical degradation from re-processing. To minimize these effects, it is important to understand the benefits of utilizing impact modifiers and compatibilizers.
INITIAL INVESTAGATION INTO THE USE OF SILICON DIOXIDE AS A FILLER IN ROTATIONAL MOULDING OF POLYETHYLENE
Presented in this paper are the preliminary results from an experimental study on the use of rock, fines* which is mainly silicon dioxide as a filler in the rotationally moulded polyethylene products. The rock fines are a waste product from the Quarrying industry. Additive levels of up to 40% by weight were studied. Samples were made with and without a compatibilizer. It was found that acceptable parts were produced at these levels. The mechanical properties of the parts were tested and showed an increase in tensile modulus but a decrease in impact properties.
MANIPULATION OF POLYMERIC BIODEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS BY VIBRATION ASSISTED INJECTION MOLDING
The wide variety of biomedical applications employing biodegradable polymers requires a similarly wide range of biodegradation properties. In this study, a dynamic melt manipulation technique in injection molding has been investigated as a low cost, high volume manufacturing alternative to respond these requirements. The technique utilizes an additional oscillatory motion during injection molding to induce molecular alignment of polymer molecules in the final product. Preliminary experimental results have indicated that biodegradation process is dependent on these orientation levels and therefore polymeric medical devices with different degradation characteristics can be obtained simply by changing the manufacturing parameters.
MANUFACTURABILITY STUDY OF NANO-ENHANCED FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES (FRPC)
One of the most environmentally friendly energy generation methods is wind power. In order to compete favorably with the cost of traditional energy generation methods, the wingspan needs to increase from current dimensions. For this to occur, taking advantage of new material developments in nano-reinforced composites is essential. The use nanoparticles have shown improvement in mechanical properties of FRPC. Understanding the manufacturability of these processes is critical, especially during VARTM. Understanding the factors affecting the flow through porous media and the inherent material properties, such as permeability and viscosity, of these nano-enhanced FPRC was the objective herein.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DEGRADATION OF COMMERICAL BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC BAGS
The properties of six biodegradable commercial plastic bags, including BioBag, Flushdoggy, Green Genius, Oxobiodegradable, Rascodog, and World Centric, were examined. Most of the bags exhibited mechanical properties similar to traditional bags. One bag that had extensively higher properties was the Flushdoggy bag, which is based on PVA. All the bags generally start to degrade thermally at around 400C. Exposure to UV light did not have much of an effect on tensile properties. UV radiation, moisture, and weathering all had little effect on thermal degradation. Oxo-biodegrable and Flushdoggy became especially brittle after accelerated aging, although Flushdoggy still exhibited strong tensile properties.
NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE POLYESTER and POLYESTER/POLYCARBONATE FR RESINS
New family of ENH flame retardant PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) and PBT/PC(polycarbonate) thermoplastic resins developed is aimed at helping electrical/electronics (E/E) manufacturers and suppliers comply with regulations restricting use and disposal of hazardous substances. The non-chlorinated, non-brominated FR PBT and PBT/PC products deliver similar mechanical, physical, thermal and flame retardant performance compared with their brominated FR based counterparts. Some of those resin properties will be discussed in this publication.
pH AND TIME DEPENDENT HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION OF BIOPLASTICS FROM RENEWABLE MONOMERS
Two renewable copolymers, poly(trimethylene malonate) (PTM) and poly(trimethylene itaconate) (PTI), have been produced with ester bonds incorporated into the polymer backbone to facilitate hydrolytic and/or enzymatic degradation. A hydrolytic degradation study of these renewable polymers in aqueous solutions adjusted to pH values is described. Final weight loss varied from 20 to 37 wt% for PTM and from 7 to 21 wt% for PTI as a function of aging time and initial solution pH. Degraded samples were characterized by FTIR, GPC, DSC, and TGA. PTI showed a slower degradation rate than PTM.
PHYSICAL PROPERTY RETENTION OF EXTERIOR AUTOMOTIVE MOLD-IN-COLOR PLASTICS AFTER UV EXPOSURE
To reduce manufacturing costs and address environmental issues, coatings free Mold-In-Color plastics are now replacing coated plastics. This paper will explore the physical property retention / weathering performance of various Mold-In-Color plastics used for exterior trim. Exposed specimens are analyzed for their change in physical properties then analyzed for change in surface chemistry via infrared spectroscopy and surface topography. It is concluded that some plastics containing styrene experience a change in physical properties and surface chemistry upon UV expose while other materials like PMMA acrylic retain their original performance.
RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION IN INFRASTRUCTURE
Use of recycled thermoplastic polymer composites for manufacturing and evaluation of structural products as a sustainable solution is discussed in this paper. Durability (aging) evaluations of those polymers have also been carried out to predict their service life. Specifically, ABS polymers were reinforced with 4%, 7% and 12% fiber volume fractions of bi-directional glass fabric (fabric density: 407 gm/sq. mtr. or 12 oz per sq. yard) and were evaluated. Research results indicate the significant potential of recycled polymer composites for different applications with the use of continuous glass fabrics.
SEALANT RESINS BASED ON ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS CONTAINING BIOSOURCED MODIFIERS
Ethylene ionomers, such as Surlyn from DuPont, have long been used as packaging sealants because of their good mechanical properties and formability combined with excellent seal strength over a wide sealing temperature range, seal integrity in the presence of contamination, and hot tack. Ionomers can be modified with biosourced additives, such as fatty acids to modify their mechanical and barrier properties. In this paper we discuss blending these recently developed ionomers with commercially available ethylene copolymers to achieve films containing 20% -40% renewable content having a good balance of sealant and mechanical properties.
SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYAMIDE ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS BASED ON THE RENEWABLE MONOMER, 1,9-NONANE DIAMINE
A series of poly(1,9-nonamethylene adipamide-co-1,9-nonamethylene terephthalamide) copolymers were produced using melt polymerization and the thermal properties and crystal structure characterized. The results obtained confirmed that the copolymers exhibit isomorphism. As expected, glass transition temperature and the apparent melting temperature increased with increasing terephthalmide content. Using the difference in the apparent melting temperature to the crystallization temperature as a measure of relative crystallization rate, it was observed that crystallization rate decreased as the terephthalamide content of the copolymer was increased from 0 to 50 mole percent but then sharply increased when increased beyond 50 mole percent.
SOLID AND MICROCELLULAR RECYCLED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET) BLENDS WITH CHAIN EXTENDERS (CE) AND NANOCLAY
Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (RPET) chain extender (CE) and nanoclay were prepared via conventional and microcellular injection molding processes. The effects of CE loading levels and the simultaneous addition of nanoclay on the thermal and mechanical properties and cell morphology of the microcellular components were noted. The addition of 1.3 wt% CE enhanced the tensile properties and viscosity of RPET. The higher amount of CE (at 3 wt%) enhanced the viscosity, but margin of improvement in mechanical properties diminished. While the solid RPET and CE blends were fairly ductile, the samples with nanoclay and all microcellular specimens showed brittle fractural behavior.
SUSTAINABILITY IN REINFORCED AND UNFILLED POLY (PHENYLENE-ETHER) BASED THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
Recycling of unfilled and reinforced poly (phenylene ether) (PPE) based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) was studied in detail. Improvement in mechanical properties upon recycling of the unfilled quaternary blend comprising of styrene-ethylene-butyllene-styrene (SEBS)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/PPE-PS (polystyrene) was correlated with the formation of crosslinked network. PPE based TPEs have been reinforced by incorporating nanofillers and with the formation of crosslinkinked TPEs or thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs). This study also provided an in-depth conceptual understanding of the recycle behavior PPE based TPE behavior upon reinforcement with silica nanoparticles and silica sol-gel precursors.
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