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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
EFFECT OF D-LACTIDE CONTENT ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYLACTIDE IN PRESENCE OF CO2 DISSOLVED GAS
M. Nofar, W. Zhu, C.B. Park, J. Randall, May 2012
In this study, the effect of dissolved CO2 on the thermal behavior of PLA with various D-contents (with and without talc) has been investigated during the cooling process at atmospheric pressure in a regular differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a high-pressure DSC. The results show that the crystallinity of PLA samples improves by increasing the CO2 pressure, reducing the D-content, and adding talc. Also, Tg and Tm shift to lower temperatures as the pressure increases, due to the plasticization effect of CO 2.
EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE MAT REINFORCED POLYCABORNATE COMPOSITES
Smith Thitithanasarn, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2012
This paper presents the possibility of using natural fiber as reinforcement for engineering thermoplastics composite. Jute mats from waste coffee bag were treated by thermoset resin such as flexible epoxy resin (FE) to improve their thermal resistance prior to compression mold with polycarbonate (PC). The effects of epoxy contents on thermal properties and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated.
EFFECT OF RECYCLE ON PROPERTIES SABIC
James DeRudder, Yuzhen Yang, Yuanqing He, Wei Zhao, Amanda Flores, May 2012
It is well known that there can be significant sacrifices in properties of recycle containing products. Properties such as color, impact, consistency, and long term aged properties, are commonly reduced in recycled products. We will discuss reasons for loss in properties; showing how these can be modeled with Monte Carlo simulations. Examples will be given to illustrate these property loss effects in polycarbonate, polyester, and in polymer blend products. It will be shown how recycle content products can be designed to have acceptable property profiles.
BIO-BASED POLYAMIDES WITH INNOVATIVE FIBRES FOR ENGINEERING PARTS MATERIALS – PROCESS – CHARACTERIZATION - APPLICATIONS
M. Feldmann, AA Mamun, A.K. Bledzki, H. - P. Heim, May 2012
Bio-based polyamides, such as PA 6.10/ Nylon 6.10 and PA 10.10, were compounded with different cellulosic fibers for injection molding applications. PA 6.10 is partly bio-based (>60%) and possessing properties very similar to those of common PA 6. The melting point of PA 6.10 is 220°C and therefore compounding with thermally sensitive cellulose fibres is a challenge. A compounding process for engineering polymers, like polyamide with cellulose fibres, was developed and optimized. It is gentle to the fibers, even at temperatures above 200°C. Furthermore, the molding process parameters were also optimized. Different mechanical properties were studied. The high impact behavior and lightweight potentiality were analyzed for bio-composites with cellulosic fibres.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF A POLY(ACRYLONITRILE:BUTADIENE:STYRENE) CUP HOLDER
Christelle F. Poquette, Niles G. Stenmark, May 2012
Environmental stress cracking (ESC) resistance has become an essential industrial criterion for engineering thermoplastics, as ESC causes unexpected brittle fracture of ductile amorphous plastics. In the automotive industry, a variety of amorphous plastics are used, which need to be ESC resistant, as they come in contact with various fluids while subjected to mechanical stresses. PC-ABS materials offer a good compromise between processibility, cost and mechanical properties. However, this material is prone to ESC failure.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF POLYCARBONATES EXPOSED TO SUNSCREEN AND HAND LOTION
Brian E. Ralston, Suresh Donthu, Paul Ledwith, Adam Kramschuster, Jason McNulty, May 2012
Three general purpose polycarbonate (PC) resins and one PC-siloxane copolymer were injection molded, then exposed to isopropyl alcohol (IPA), hand lotion, and SPF 30 sunscreen while under strain. The hand lotion exhibited the most aggressive environmental stress cracking (ESC) behavior. Effects of molecular weight, polymer composition and annealing are addressed. Scanning electron microscopy of an ESC fracture surface is also presented.
BIOMASS MATERIALS, SHAPE MEMORY POLYURETHANE
Jia Hong Li, May 2012
In this study, the aliphatic or aromatic isocyanates and poly-alcohols was used to synthesize polyurethane with shape memory function, which the polyol was derived from the biomass polylactic acid (PLA). The recycled PLA was degraded into the low molecular weight PLA (Mw 1,000) and the chain extension agent (1,4-butanediol, BDO) reaction was added to form biomass polyol. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were proved the synthesis of polyol. The recovery ratio of shape memory and mechanical properties of polyurethane were improved significantly due to the urea structure, the biomass polyurethane with shape memory could be increased up to 95% of recovery ratio. Different isocyanate (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI, or 4,4- diphenylmethene diisocyanate, MDI) were compared and found that the functional group of aromatic was better than that of aliphatic in the synthesis of polyurethane with shape memory behavior.
CARBON NANOTUBES IN BLENDS OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH/POLYCAPROLACTONE CARBON NANOTUBES IN BLENDS OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH/POLYCAPROLACTONE
Ata Taghizadeh, Basil D. Favis Ata Taghizadeh, Basil D. Favis, May 2012
Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been blended with thermoplastic starch (TPS) and carbon nanotubes in different compositions. The localisation of solid particles is an influential factor in filled polymer blends. Hence, SEM and TEM images have been used to investigate the morphology and localisation of nanofilled-polymer blends. .The blending of a semicrystalline polymer with another polymer or nanofillers will also change the thermal properties of the polymers in different ways. This change has been studied by non-isothermal crystallization curve analyses. These results were interconnected in such a way that it was possible to confirm the localisation from thermal properties.
CHAIN EXTENSION OF RECYCLED POLYAMIDES : HOW TO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF RECYCLED PA IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
Elodie Gaouyat, May 2012
The present work attempted to implement reactive compatibilisation of blends of recycled engineering plastics, more particularly the case of recycled PA66 contaminated by recycled PA6. Low molecular weight, high Tg Styrene-Maleic Anhydride copolymers were tested as chain extenders / compatibilizers. It appeared that the addition of 2% by weight of SMA to an incompatible system of recycled PA6 and PA66 improved both ductility and impact performance by factors of at least 10 and 1.5 respectively. Moreover, high Tg SMA improved performances at elevated temperature, partly due to its ability to effectively crosslink but also because of its inherent heat resistance.
IN SITU OBSERVATION OF THE FOAMING PROCESSES OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBER REINFORCED POLYLACTIC ACID BIOCOMPOSITES
W.D. Ding, A. Wong, T. Kuboki, C.B. Park, M. Sain, May 2012
This paper examines the effect of fiber content on the foaming behavior of cellulose nanofiber reinforced polylactic acid biocomposites. The in situ observation of batch foaming processes was conducted by using a high-speed camera. It was found that nanofiber content has a significant effect on the cell nucleation and growth in the composite foams. As the fiber content increased, the cell nucleating power increased and cell growth rate decreased.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDERS WITH COST EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS
Ravi Ayyer, Tom Rosenmayer, Frank Papp, May 2012
Micronized Rubber Powder (MRP) is classified as dry, powdered elastomer in which a significant proportion of particles are less than 100 microns. It is used as a compound extender to offset the spiraling prices of natural and synthetic virgin rubber materials. MRP is typically made from cured elastomer feedstock via a cryogenic process at a temperature below the Tg of the polymer. A better understanding of MRP surface properties is needed to facilitate efforts to utilize the material as a high value, sustainable material for use in various industrial and consumer rubber products. An update on MRP characterization is presented, including surface morphology by SEM, surface chemistry by XPS, surface area by Kr BET, and particle size distribution by laser diffraction. An example is given that demonstrates how the surface chemistry can be used to explain the effect of MRP on cure and physical properties in rubber compounds.
INJECTION MOLDS IN CLEANROOM ENVIRONMENTS
Peter Röstel, Thomas Seul, May 2012
The cleanliness of production facilities is an important quality factor. Higher purity minimizes environmental influences and in this way a better process control can be obtained. Therefore, the use of clean room technology is establishing in industries like automotive more and more. To maintain the controlled contamination throughout the process, injection molds, which are intended for production in clean room environments must be adequate to special needs. Special coatings for lubricant-free manufacturing support these concepts.
LATEST UV COATING TRENDS
Abdullah Ekin, May 2012
The UV-cure segment’s growth can be attributed to the coatings’ many competitive advantages, including low energy costs, no pot life issues, reduced environmental impact and a fast cure speed. In fact, one-component (1K) UV-cure coating technology is one of the fastest chemistries currently available. This paper will discuss trends within the two main UV coating platforms – 100 percent solids UV formulation and waterborne UV systems. Both are sustainable chemistries, having ultra-low-volatile organic compound (VOC) levels.
COMMERCIALIZATION ROADMAP OF BIOPOLYMERS & BIOCOMPOSITES
Sam McCord, Mike Parker, May 2012
The advent of new base raw materials composed of recycled post consumer/post industrial plastics combined with organic bio fibers that up to now had no value added/sustainable use, has created a global market for a new classification of materials, Bio Fiber Composites. Fundamentally, these composites reduce the hydrocarbon content, (oil) replaced with natural fillers in the form of organic “renewable.” This family of materials is best suited to replace pure polymers, and drives the green, sustainable shift of achieving a balance of physical and mechanical properties to produce the goods and components needed across the complete product landscape. Any product that is injection molded, extruded, thermoformed, or rotationally molded today, can be replaced with a natural organic filled BioComposites Materials. MCG BioComposites, LLC has been formed to supply this place in the industry. This paper will demonstrate the uses and commercial applications for various biomasses, i.e., corn cob fiber, flax fiber and wheat starch.
MAXIMIZING TALC BENEFITS IN DURABLE PLA APPLICATIONS WITH LUZENAC HAR®
Saied H. Kochesfahani, Caroline Abler, Jerome Crepin-Leblond, Frederic Jouffret, May 2012
The use of talc in PLA compounds for durable applications has been studied, and it is shown that talc could significantly increase stiffness, reduce thermal expansion (CLTE), and enhance thermal stability and HDT of crystallized PLA compounds. The high aspect ratio Luzenac HAR talc could be used to maximize these functions or to achieve desired mechanical properties at lower talc loadings, which may be desirable for compostability or other requirements.
MELT EXTRUSION AND FILM PROPERTIES OF SOY FLOUR/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS
Christopher Thellen, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2012
Blends of soy flour and linear low density polyethylene were melt-compounded at soy loading levels of 0-40% with and without a compatibilizer. Films were formed from the blends through compression molding and were characterized for thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. Measured shifts in the glass transition temperature of the soy component with and without compatibilizer are reported. Oxygen and water vapor permeation rates of the films are also presented and compared to the neat polyethylene film.
MODIFICATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYBUTYLENE SUCCINATE USING IN-SITU COMPATIBILIZATION BLEND WITH POLY(LACTIC ACID)
Benchamas Panyad, Nattakarn Hongsriphan, May 2012
PBS/PLA blends in various blend ratios added GMA to modify their compatibility were prepared using melt blending. Mechanical properties of polymer blends before and after in-situ compatibilization were investigated. Morphology and compatibility of modified blends was studied via SEM and DSC, respectively. PBS/PLA 50:50 wt% added 10 wt% GMA exhibited high percentage of elongation at break in a range of LDPE due to co-continuous structures. This phenomenon also benefited the impact strength of modified blends.
CROSS-LINKING OF HYDROGEL WITH A NEW WATER-SOLUBLE AGENT, DIISOSORBIDE BISEPOXIDE
Herman Suwardie, Bhavita Joshi, Eleanor Ojinnaka, William B. Hammond, George C. Collins, May 2012
Cross-linking of polymeric biomaterials has increased in interest over the last 5-10 years. One category of biomaterials is hydrogel, a chemically cross-linked network that swells when immersed in water. Dextran, a polysaccharide, can be crosslinked to form hydrogels that have found application as tissue scaffolds and delivery devices. In this study, dextran is cross-linked with diisorbide bisepoxide, a water soluble chemical cross-linker. The gelation temperature and gel time will be monitored using oscillatory rheometer.
NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE REINFORCED POLYVINYL ALCOHOL: PROPERTIES AND SOLUBILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE
Yottha Srithep, Lih-Sheng Turng, Ronald Sabo, Craig Clemons, May 2012
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was mixed with a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) fiber suspension in water followed by casting. The transmission electron scanning (TEM) images revealed that the NFC fibers dispersed well in PVOH. The presence of NFC significantly increased the tensile modulus of the nanocomposites nearly threefold and could serve as a nucleating agent, promoting the early onset of crystallization. However, at a higher NFC content, it led to greater thermal degradation of the PVOH matrix.
CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF POST-INDUSTRIAL WASTE NYLON COMPOSITES
Paul Lem, Philip Bates, B. Baylin, J. Vanderveen, May 2012
This study examined the crystallization behaviour of polyamide 6 from post-industrial carpet waste (PIW6-GF) and virgin polyamide 6 (PA6-GF) - both reinforced with 30 wt% glass fibers. Neutron activation analysis was used to detect the presence of contaminants – principally TiO2, a common pigment in carpet fibers. Once the Ti content in the glass fibers was accounted for, the TiO2 contents in the resin fraction of PIW6-GF and PA6-GF were estimated to be 0.14% and 0% respectively. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) was performed to assess the overall level of crystallinity and rate of crystallization. Experiments showed that, regardless of the cooling rate, PIW6-GF started to crystallize sooner and at higher crystallization temperatures than PA6-GF. This was attributed to the presence of TiO2 acting as a nucleating agent. Towards the end of the crystallization process, the rate of crystallization for PIW6-GF was observed to slow down relative to PA6-GF. At the highest cooling rates attainable in the DSC (200 °C/min), PA6-GF completed crystallization before that of the PIW6-GF compound. This reduction in crystallization rate is again attributed to the nano-scale TiO2 that could be interfering with the later stages of the crystallization process. The total crystallinity of moulded parts was observed to be greater for PA6-GF than PIW6- GF. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was performed on both materials one minute after ejection from a 30°C injection mould. This allowed the capture of rigidity data during the cooling of the specimen at a constant temperature of 25°C. PIW6-GF parts exhibited significantly lower complex moduli during the 30 minutes after moulding. Interestingly, modulus values at 25°C of both materials measured one week after the moulding were equal. The slightly lower crystallinity and the slower rate of crystallization are the suspected causes of this stiffness difference.


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