SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
A.Maragiannis | D. Papageorgiou | C. Medrea | Stasinopouloi-Uddeholm, November 2011
Tyres consist of synthetic rubber | metals and linen. Tyre waste decomposes after hundreds of years | and its presence is detrimental for the environment. Standing water | trapped into tires may be a permanent pollution source | while tyre waste next to a forest increases the possibility of fire. European legislation imposes the recycling of tyre waste | which includes the following three steps: shredding in strips | cutting strips in small pieces | and powder production from the pieces. At the last stage magnets remove the metallic pieces | while centrifugal screens remove the linen. Metals are sold to the steel industry as scrap | linen is used in limekiln as a combustion material and the rubber flakes are used in numerous applications (e.g. road surface construction, concrete additives | mouse pads | etc.).
PVC – Moving Up to the Next Level
Stuart Patrick, November 2011
The papers from the most recent IOM3 conference, PVC 2011, are used as the basis for this paper. The PVC market is reviewed on the basis of Europe’s environmental challenges with management options being reshaped by global megatrends. The cost competitiveness of PVC products, energy saving from using PVC products and increasing recognition of our sustainable development progress can only serve our industry well into the future. The Voluntary Commitments of the past ten years (Vinyl 2010) and the next ten years (VinylPlus) are reviewed. Examples of educational initiatives in the UK to improve perceptions are also highlighted.
Renewable Based High Performance TPU
J. Santamaría, November 2011
The company Merquinsa SL | located in Barcelona | Spain | produces classical polyurethane as well as new (ECO) polyurethane based on several raw materials from renewable sources. This particular study was based on biogenic oil as primary renewable source for TPU. A new family of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) is presented. This new TPU series has application for polyurethane adhesives | polyurethane for extrusion | and injection molding markets. A full range of vegetable plant-based sources derived from bifunctional polyols has been developed. The reaction of these polyols in the TPU formulation allows new TPU with a renewable content ranging from 30% to 90% by weight. Compared to the standard petrochemical-based grades | the new ‘green-TPU’ shows better hydrolytic resistance | and maintain equivalent mechanical properties like first-class thermoplastic polyurethanes. Merquinsa will present the latest results for its ECO-TPU range | based on different renewable raw materials.
Surface Modification Techniques for Optimizing Adhesion to Automotive Plastics
Rory A. Wolf, November 2011
Automotive plastics with a low polarity, such as PE, PP, TPO, POM, PUR and PTFE typically require surface treatment when decoration is required. Metallic surfaces may also require cleaning to remove low molecular weight organic materials prior to decoration. Once the above-mentioned interior and exterior grades of substrate surfaces are cleaned and activated, printing, gluing and painting are possible without the use of adhesion-promoting primers. This paper describes the latest innovations in three-dimensional surface treating technology for plastics finishing which address the need to advance adhesion properties, increase product quality, and achieve environmental objectives within the automotive industry. These innovations include advanced thermal and non-thermal discharge treatment processes for raising the polarity of surfaces to be painted, bonded, decorated, laminated, printed, or to have tape applied.
Cardona F. | Fedrigo J., November 2011
Novel phenolic resins (PF) with improved fracture toughness and flexibility properties were synthesised and evaluated. A first modification consisted in the copolymerization of Phenol with a natural renewable component (Cardanol) during the synthesis of PF resins (CPF). An increases in the content of Cardanol resulted in a proportional increases in the flexural strength and in the fracture toughness together with a decreases in the flexural modulus of the cured CPF/PF blended resins. Further increased plasticizing and toughening effect was observed by the blending of the CPF/PF resins with propylene glycol (PG).
Ashok M. Adur, November 2011
Polyamides are widely used in many applications. There is a vast amount of recycled polyamide coming from the carpet and textile and other industries. Due to degradation and loss of viscosity, this recycled polyamide has reduced performance and limited its use. The unique chemistry of alternating copolymers of ethylene and maleic anhydride provide several advantages for upgrading recycled polyamide. This paper discusses the results obtained with compounding prime grade polyamide as well as recycled polyamide with the addition of small quantities of this copolymer and specific property improvements for applications in injection molded compounds.
High-performance biobased polymer composites
Dennis P. Wiesenborn, Judith D. Espinoza-Perez, December 2011
Polymers based on canola and soybean oils perform well in E-glass fiber reinforced composites, thanks to carefully selected curing agents.
Enhanced crystallization of polylactide by adding a multiamide compound
Guangyi Chen, Jicai Liang, Ping Song, Zhiyong Wei , Wanxi Zhang, January 2012
A multiamide nucleating agent, N,N',N"- -tricyclohexyl-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylamide, promotes the nucleation process of polylactide and further accelerates its overall crystallization rate.
Improving biodegradable polymer nanocomposites
Lisong Dong, Lijing Han, January 2012
Adding silica nanoparticles to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by melt compounding makes it stronger but more brittle.
Kenaf-fiber-reinforced copolyester biocomposites
Babu Guduri, Thabang Mokhothu, Adriaan Luyt, January 2012
Alkali-treated kenaf fibers improve the thermal and mechanical properties of an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester resin.
Porous scaffolds based on poly(L-lysine)/microcrystalline cellulose biocomposite
Mohamed Farag Eldessouki , Gisela Buschle-Diller, Yasser Gowayed, January 2012
The unique features of poly(L-lysine) and microcrystalline cellulose combine to produce a more stable material for tissue-engineering scaffolds.
Improved biodegradability and mechanical properties of modified starch blends
Jun Zhang, Shan Hu, Huliang Gao, March 2012
Poly(lactic acid) is an efficient way to reduce cost and improve the attributes of starch blends.
Toward better treatment for clogged arteries
Yuan Yuan, Yaru Han, Suming Li , Zhongyong Fan, March 2012
Bioresorbable composites prepared for mechanical performance are promising candidates as cardiovascular stent material.
Recycled Materials Data Collection
Keith D. Weyer, March 2012
Company wide protocol: Establish a central data collection/analysis system  Build continual improvement into program  Inter-plant material exchange  Reduction in material costs  Reduction in landfill costs
Sustainable Plastic Packaging: Renew and Recycle
Dr. Shell Huang, March 2012
The Coca-Cola Company: 2020 Vision; Sustainability: Packaging Material Strategy; PET Recycle: Bottle to Bottle and Bottle to Others; PlantBottle® Packaging: Close the Loop - Renew and Recycle
Sustainability from Start to Finish: The Lifecycle Impacts of Plastic Packaging
Kelly Polich, March 2012
Why is Packaging Important? Fundamentals & Definitions of Bio-Plastics  Material Innovations from Dow  Bio-Plastics and the Environment  Bio-based Sustainability  End of Life (Current and Future/New)  FTC Guidelines Considerations  Conclusions
Thermally stable biopolymer for tissue scaffolds
Shuen-Hung Lo, Bor-Kuan Chen, March 2012
Modifying poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with acryloyloxyethyl isocyanate increases the thermal decomposition temperature by 27°C and improves its mechanical properties.
Uniquely identifying polymer composite domains using energy-dispersive spectroscopy
Richard Lehman, Giorgiana Giancola, April 2012
Discriminating between microscopic regions of component polymers that have chemically similar structures enables characterization of the phase-inversion composition of a biobased immiscible blend.
Todd Lewis, Ryan Schmidt, Avraam L. Isayev, May 2012
Nanostructures have been a topic of great scientific interest for the past several decades for the possibility of their use in enhanced composites. However, the precautions for the safe use of these low bulk density materials are commonly overlooked. The airborne release of these materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and nanoclays, into the air during compounding is inevitable. In conventional polymer processing these fillers pose a potential threat until they are encapsulated in a polymer matrix. This occurs while transporting or feeding nanostructures into the process. Typically, the operator uses a respirator to avoid inhaling nanostructures into the body that escape engineering controls and it is therefore important to investigate how efficient these respirators are at capturing these airborne materials. To carry out this study, a special device was built to simulate the dynamic breathing process of air inhalation to determine the permeation of nanostructures through various respirators of different safety ratings. This will provide new information concerning the environmental impact of nanostructures in the prevention of exposure to human beings of airborne nanostructures.
Saeid Zokaei, Pouyan Motamedi, Reza Bagheri, May 2012
Polypropylene matrix nanocomposites reinforced with organoclay are investigated and their ability to replace some polyamide automotive parts is evaluated. This is so interesting from industrial point of view because of cost saving and ease of processing and recycling. This work is focused on different nanocomposite systems, which are PP/nanoclay, and PP/PA/nanoclay. Also the effect of compatibilizer is presented here. Structures of these systems are studied by using WAXD, TEM and SEM. Mechanical properties of specimens are studied using uniaxial tensile test. As it will be demonstrated, nanoclay sheets tend to disperse in PA particles. On the other hand, introducing nanoclay into PP/PA blends is proven to have a significant effect on the shape and size of PA particles. In addition, incorporation of nanoclay and compatibilizer into PP matrix directly affected the elastic modulus and yield strength, respectively. Finally, it is observed that among different formulations, PP/PA/nanoclay with PP-g-MA shows the most similar mechanical properties in comparison to neat PA. Based on these results, an automotive part (hubcap which is usually made from PA) was manufactured and its performance investigated in service situations as a case study. Automotive manufacturers' standards were considered and all results were satisfactory.

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How to Reference Articles from the SPE Library:

Brief version (acceptable):
Author(s), SPE-ANTEC Tech. Papers, vol. no., page no. (year).
Proper version (preferred):
Author(s), “Title,” SPE-ANTEC Meeting in location: month, year, vol. no., page no.