SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
Hanjian, Zhou Yingguo, Yan Chenguang, Cui Zhixiang, Wang Xiaofeng, Liu Chuntai, May 2012

The environmental stress cracking (ESC) behavior of injection molded polycarbonate (PC) plates in carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was investigated. Molecular orientation was determined by birefringence measurement, which was used to study the effect of microstructure on crack development. It has been found that crack occurred in the edge surface of the molded PC plates after immersed in CCL4. The crack formation and location was correlated with molecular orientation and residual stresses of the parts. The effects of processing conditions on ESC behavior of molded PC parts were also elucidated in terms of microstructural analyses.

Bonnie J. Bachman, Shristy Bashyal, Margaret Baumann, May 2012

In the past green business evolution among business organizations has gone through “three waves of change” (Makeower, 2009, p. 12). In the 1960s businesses started being green with the notion “Do no harm” and companies started minimizing the environmental impacts (Makeower, 2009, p. 12). In the 1960s, companies mainly focused on pollution control that included stopping illegal activities such as “spewing smokestacks and drainpipes” (Makeower, 2009, p.12). In the 1970s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and similar agencies were formed in the United States and in the other countries with standard laws about pollution of air and water (Makeower, 2009, p. 9). The second wave occurred in the 1980s and emphasized “Doing well by doing good” as companies realized that taking a few proactive steps could reduce costs and enhance a company’s image (Makeower, 2009, p. 10). Later, companies started being concerned about issues like pollution prevention, waste reduction, and energy efficiency. Then in the 1990s came the third wave: “Green is green” (Makeower, 2009, p. 12). During the third wave companies paid more attention to the environmental issues. As stated by Makeower (2009), “Companies recognized that environmental thinking can do much more than improving the bottom line i.e. it can help grow the top line through innovation, new markets, and new business opportunities”. In September 1996, the ISO 14001 environmental management system was issued and applied, establishing “a baseline set of rules for how companies should be organized environmentally” (Makeower, 2009, p. 10). According to Makeower (2009), “as companies scrutinized their operations, they understood how much of their environmental impacts were affected by their external stakeholders hence Supply-chain Environmental Management became the watchword after that the concepts of industrial ecology, zero waste, and carbon-neutrality emerged” (p. 11). Today companies are finally concerned about the “S-word, sus

Shia-Chung Chen, Wei-Yao Hsu, Sung-Wei Huang, Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2012

In the recent years, with the increasing demand of energy and the rapid consumption of fossil fuels, a variety of alternative energy are rapid development to replace traditional energy. Solar power, is one of the best sustainable energy and nowadays widely used for generating electrical power. In this study, the solar condenser of converted efficiency is investigated into conventional and injection compression molding process with various parameters. The experimental results show that the higher mold and melt temperature can increase converted efficiency of condenser during conventional injection molding (CIM) process. In all conventional molding parameters, the best converted efficiency can enhanced 51.4 W/m2 (7.60%). The injection compression molding (CIM) can achieve better efficient performance than conventional molding process.

Jeff Munro, Jose M. Rego, Lisa Madenjian, Kim Walton, May 2012

Introduced in 2006, INFUSE™ Olefin Block Copolymers (OBCs) have since been explored in many markets and application areas, including soft compounds. Key molecular design elements were identified as critical factors to the manufacturing of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) with the required property balance. This paper is aimed at providing an overview of the main considerations for formulating OBCs for soft compound applications and highlights the sustainability advantage of OBC compounds relative to styrenic block copolymer compounds.

C. Chau, J. Williams, S. Solovyov, T. Powers, P. Koch, May 2012

Polylactic acid and polypropylene were melt blended and extruded into 3-10 mil films. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed the polymer blends, unlike the neat PP and PLA materials, exhibited crystallization exotherm in heating scans with a crystallization point varied with the ratio of PLA to PP. This melt crystallization behavior was enhanced with the increase of the content of PLA from 25 to 75%. The polymer blends also showed multiple melting points ranging from approximately 140 to 175°C depending on the ratio of the two polymers and the heating rate. The formation of a new crystallization temperature, the shifting of the melting points, and/or the formation of new melting points suggested some compatibility between PP and PLA. Upon uniaxial stretching, the originally translucent films showed strong stress-whitening phenomena with widespread porous structure developed in the whitened region. SEM showed fibrils with a typical diameter of 2 micron and voids or pores of approximately 5 micron developed in the whitened region. The partial compatibility between PLA and PP could have contributed to the homogeneity of the stress-whitening and the porous structure in the film. The porous films provided two folds or higher increase in oxygen transmission rate depending on the material composition and draw ratio. The structural development and the potential use of the porous PLA/PP films in packaging application are discussed.

Tom Marti, Richard Botteicher, May 2012

The application of thermal butt-fusion joining technology to polyvinylchloride (PVC) piping has had a major impact on the waterworks market over the last seven years. The combination of a familiar, industry standard piping material with a joining method that lends itself to cutting edge trenchless installation methods has seen rapid expansion in application and use in the water and wastewater industries. Trenchless methods that involve the installation of a new pipeline, or ‘whole pipe replacement,’ include horizontal directional drilling (HDD), sliplining, and pipe bursting methodologies. These methods are characterized by the installation of a new pipeline or conduit that does not derive pressure capacity, strength, or design life from any previously installed or “host” infrastructure. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe with the use of butt-fused PVC pipe technology has made great strides in these applications, due to its high tensile strength capacity, high hydrostatic design basis, good chemical compatibility, and abrasion resistance. The use of butt-fused PVC pipe has expanded the capabilities of thermoplastic pipe within these methodologies, allowing greater pull-in lengths, depths, and pressure capacities to be achieved. This paper will discuss the materials and technology that are allowing for this expansion as well as highlight the direct impact on the installation methodologies through several recent case study examples. Case studies will include a record setting horizontal directional drill for a water transmission main installation; a large diameter force main rehabilitation through the use of sliplining; and a pipe bursting replacement program for potable water distribution mains, all in North America. This information will illustrate the innovative nature of this joining methodology, flexibility and range of the current whole pipe replacement offerings, and demonstrate how they are growing in use as end users benefit from this unique application of PVC pipe.

Darlene Putz, May 2012

Industrial markets are ready to take advantage of direct to product decorating - printing to substrate. When is it time? Now is the time. The advantages are numerous: Inventory Reduction - on demand printing, Personalization - adding a new product level to current product line and added value to increase the bottom line, Green - very little waste and numerous recycling programs for consumable items. With advantages being clear, moving into the digial printing world requires a little preparation. Starting with how to select the appropriate printer from printhead selection to ink delivery system, ink selection, down to software. All key components in successfully moving into digitally printing. With a range of printing platforms from flatbed printers, high speed single pass systems to multipass systems - there is a solution for all decorating types. Taking the process step by step, being knowledable about the systems available and asking the right questions will put your company on the path to successful digital decoration in the production environment.

B. Varkey, Y. Huang, D.A. Wasylyshyn, May 2012

The Non-Conductive Vacuum Metallization (NCVM) process has become a mainstream metallization technology to achieve metallic like appearances on the surfaces of plastics used in wireless electronic devices while maintaining radio frequency (RF) functionality of the internal antennas. The impact on device performance and reliability of NCVM coatings has been discussed based on the most common failure modes and industrial testing standards. This paper discusses the effects of environmental conditions as well as construction variation of NCVM systems as they relate to various customer- impacting failure modes such as discoloration/corrosion, delamination and RF interference.

Uniquely identifying polymer composite domains using energy-dispersive spectroscopy
Richard Lehman, Giorgiana Giancola, April 2012

Discriminating between microscopic regions of component polymers that have chemically similar structures enables characterization of the phase-inversion composition of a biobased immiscible blend.

Thermally stable biopolymer for tissue scaffolds
Shuen-Hung Lo, Bor-Kuan Chen, March 2012

Modifying poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with acryloyloxyethyl isocyanate increases the thermal decomposition temperature by 27°C and improves its mechanical properties.

Recycled Materials Data Collection
Keith D. Weyer, March 2012

Company wide protocol: Establish a central data collection/analysis system  Build continual improvement into program  Inter-plant material exchange  Reduction in material costs  Reduction in landfill costs

Sustainable Plastic Packaging: Renew and Recycle
Dr. Shell Huang, March 2012

The Coca-Cola Company: 2020 Vision; Sustainability: Packaging Material Strategy; PET Recycle: Bottle to Bottle and Bottle to Others; PlantBottle® Packaging: Close the Loop - Renew and Recycle

Sustainability from Start to Finish: The Lifecycle Impacts of Plastic Packaging
Kelly Polich, March 2012

Why is Packaging Important? Fundamentals & Definitions of Bio-Plastics  Material Innovations from Dow  Bio-Plastics and the Environment  Bio-based Sustainability  End of Life (Current and Future/New)  FTC Guidelines Considerations  Conclusions

Toward better treatment for clogged arteries
Yuan Yuan, Yaru Han, Suming Li , Zhongyong Fan, March 2012

Bioresorbable composites prepared for mechanical performance are promising candidates as cardiovascular stent material.

Improved biodegradability and mechanical properties of modified starch blends
Jun Zhang, Shan Hu, Huliang Gao, March 2012

Poly(lactic acid) is an efficient way to reduce cost and improve the attributes of starch blends.

Porous scaffolds based on poly(L-lysine)/microcrystalline cellulose biocomposite
Mohamed Farag Eldessouki , Gisela Buschle-Diller, Yasser Gowayed, January 2012

The unique features of poly(L-lysine) and microcrystalline cellulose combine to produce a more stable material for tissue-engineering scaffolds.

Kenaf-fiber-reinforced copolyester biocomposites
Babu Guduri, Thabang Mokhothu, Adriaan Luyt, January 2012

Alkali-treated kenaf fibers improve the thermal and mechanical properties of an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester resin.

Improving biodegradable polymer nanocomposites
Lisong Dong, Lijing Han, January 2012

Adding silica nanoparticles to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by melt compounding makes it stronger but more brittle.

Enhanced crystallization of polylactide by adding a multiamide compound
Guangyi Chen, Jicai Liang, Ping Song, Zhiyong Wei , Wanxi Zhang, January 2012

A multiamide nucleating agent, N,N',N"- -tricyclohexyl-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylamide, promotes the nucleation process of polylactide and further accelerates its overall crystallization rate.

High-performance biobased polymer composites
Dennis P. Wiesenborn, Judith D. Espinoza-Perez, December 2011

Polymers based on canola and soybean oils perform well in E-glass fiber reinforced composites, thanks to carefully selected curing agents.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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