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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
DESIGN OF INDUCTION HEATING MODULE FOR UNIFORM CAVITY SURFACE HEATING
Yu-Ting Sung, Yu-Ning Lin, Sheng-Jye Hwang, Huei-Huang Lee, Durn-Yuan Huang, May 2012
Electromagnetic induction heating has many advantages such as fast heating, low energy consumption and environmental pollution reduction. Using induction heating for rapid tool heating is more economic and efficient than any of the tool heating technique. Previous studies using electromagnetic induction heating for rapid tool heating indicate that the temperature uniformity on cavity surface is not easy to be achieved no matter with surface or insert type induction heating. In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of temperature uniformity on mold cavity surface for different induction heating coil. The parallel type coil and magnetic flux concentrators were adopted to form the induction heating device. According to the results of heating experiments, the surface temperature of 10 mm thickness hot work die steel (JIS SKD61) could rise from 50°C to 150°C in 15 seconds and the temperature uniformity of the heated zone reached 94%~95%.
DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING FAILURE MODE IN INVESTIGATIONS OF CPVC FIRE-SUPPRESSION SPRINKLER PIPE FAILURES
Anand R. Shah, Dale B. Edwards, May 2012
This paper discusses three separate failure analysis case studies involving Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride (CPVC) fire suppression sprinkler pipe(s) alleged to have failed due to Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) from exposure to an incompatible chemical. The investigations highlight the importance of the interpretation of fracture surface morphology, review of background information regarding service history, performing material characterization testing, as well as developing an understanding of the interaction of various chemicals with CPVC material when attributing a failure of CPVC sprinkler pipe to ESC. The case studies discussed are helpful in understanding the ESC mechanism in CPVC sprinkler pipes, which is a complex failure mode. This paper discusses the technical issues that should be addressed in determining whether ESC is the primary cause of failure in a CPVC fire suppression sprinkler pipe system.
DETERRA® BIOBASED POLYMERS-NEXT GENERATION MATERIALS FOR DURABLE APPLICATIONS
Adam R. Pawloski, Brandon J. Cernohous, Ashley Pinault, Jeffrey J. Cernohous, May 2012
In the past decade, the market for biobased polymers has grown dramatically. Much of this growth has been in the packaging market, where biobased polymer films (i.e., PLA and PHA) have displaced conventional LDPE and LLDPE. Packaging is a natural application for biobased polymers given the short life cycle and consumable nature of this product. Recently, consumers have begun to demand green alternatives in applications where durable plastics have historically been utilized. For example, PVC has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. PVC’s inherent chemical nature and the additives it is often formulated with have been identified by several organizations targeting chemicals that can harm the environment. In certain markets, like the building and construction market, there is a salient need for a biobased material that can be used as a PVC alternative. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification and other local codes and regulations are creating a new market for durable biobased polymers. One may consider durable biobased polymers a misnomer. However, the inherent nature of biopolymers like PLA, is such that they can function in one environment (e.g., interior building applications), but degrade in another environment (i.e., compost). This work describes several grades of polymeric compounds that been recently developed by Interfacial Solutions for durable applications. These products are currently marketed under out deTerra® Biobased Polymer trade name.
PHA BIODEGRABLE BLOW-MODLED BOTTLES: COMPOUNDING AND PERFORMANCE
Joseph Greene, May 2012
PHA biodegradable plastics can be made into biodegradable bottles with reasonable impact and tensile strength. PHBV and P(3HB-4HB) grades of PHA were compounded with processing additives and blow molded into bottles with an extrusion blow molding process. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior processing properties and demonstrated a wide processing window to two other PHA materials. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior tensile and impact properties and superior permeation resistance than two other PHA materials from China.
DEVELOPMENT OF LIGNIN-BASED THERMOPLASTICS FOR COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS
Amit K Naskar, May 2012
Current trends in renewable resin systems for composite applications will be presented in this talk. Our recent efforts on synthesis of lignin-based bio-thermoplastics show significant promise. Various methods of establishing chemical synthetic routes for producing lignin-based thermoplastics that can increase the value of lignin by-products will be discussed. Compatibilization of blends of lignin with different polymeric matrices results good thermoplastic for certain lignin loadings. These routes would provide a low-cost alternative, recyclable resins for future composite applications.
RECYCLE TECHNOLOGY OF USED PLASTIC MATERIALS
Hobuyuki Imamura, Masahiro Muto, Tatsuro Ueda, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Hiroki Sakamoto, Shinichi Kawasaki, Takahiro Nishino, May 2012
This paper describes the recycle technology of used plastic materials such as waste HDPE films and containers, waste caps for PET bottles, and used PET bottles with caps and films. The fusion joining strength of extruded sheets of waste HDPE films and containers using a compatibilizer was firstly studied. A compounding technology of used PET bottles with caps and films using a compatibilizer was secondly studied.
RECYCLING OF POLYVINYL BUTYRAL (PVB) FROM LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS
Achim Schmiemann, May 2012
Polymeric interlayers like Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) - films between glass sheets make it safe in case of breakage. But, in the case of recycling, the adhesive interlayer makes the laminated glass difficult to cut. Fortunately, the mostly used PVB is a polymer which can easily been solved in different agents. Using this possibility the present investigations show that recovered PVB can be used in laminated safety glass again.
EFFECT OF EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYLACTIC ACID BLENDS
Yong Qing, Fu Zhao, Chen Quan, Huan Zheng, Gui Wu, Zhang Zhen, Qu Jin Ping, May 2012
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), as a plasticizer, was melt blended with polylactic acid (PLA) in an internal mixer. The effects of ESO on the mechanical properties of the PLA/ESO blends were studied by means of the tensile, flexural, and impact tests. The elongation at break for the PLA/ESO blends was obviously improved with an increase in ESO loading, and was 16.8 times than that for pure PLA when the ESO loading was 5 wt %. Compared with pure PLA, the blends appeared lower tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. However, ESO improved impact strength for PLA matrix. Impact strength for the blends increased at first and then decreased as the ESO loading increased, which arrived a maximum of 2.9 times than that for pure PLA when the ESO loading was 10 wt %.
EFFECT OF THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF PLASTICIZER ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLYMER BLENDS WITH THERMOPLASTIC STARCH
Ata Taghizadeh, Basil D. Favis, May 2012
In this study, two different plasticizers from the polyol family have been used in the preparation of thermoplastic starch. The effect of these plasticizers on the interfacial modification of thermoplastic starch/polyethylene mixtures has been examined. When a higher molecular weight plasticizer is used, a different emulsification behaviour is observed for compatibilized systems. The number average droplet size decreases much more effectively with compatibilizer content than the volume average diameter. This behaviour is attributed to the chemical structure of the plasticizer. The mechanical properties of these systems are also presented.
EFFECTS OF HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RENEWABLE BIOPLASTICS: POLY(TRIMETHYLENE MALONATE) AND POLY(TRIMETHYLENE ITACONATE)
Mathew D. Rowe, Ersan Eyiler, I-Wei Chu, Keisha B. Walters, May 2012
Hydrolytic degradation of two renewable copolymers, poly(trimethylene malonate) (PTM) and poly(trimethylene itaconate) (PTI), was performed in aqueous solutions adjusted to pH values ranging approximately from 5.5 to 11. The influence of the degradation on the elastic modulus of these bioplastics was examined by a new atomic force microscopy (AFM) mode. Elastic modulus was monitored as a function of degradation time (100 to 10000 min) in DI water to determine changes. After degradation for one week the elastic modulus of PTI has decreased by 71 %. PTM was found to be hygroscopic. Due to significant swelling and uneven surfaces—in both the dry and wet state—PTM samples could neither be easily imaged nor its nanomechanical properties evaluated by AFM.
EFFECTS OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATIONS AND RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING STRESS CRACKING RESISTANCE OF POLYCARBONATE
Christian Hopmann, Markus Brinkmann, Nikolai Borchmann, Andre Potthoff, May 2012
Environmental stress cracking is the most common failure reason of plastic parts. The influence of the processing conditions has been investigated in a previous research project at IKV. Yet, it was not clear if these effects can be correlated with the molecular orientations or the residual stresses. Therefore the effects of molecular orientations and residual stresses on the ESC?resistance are analyzed. The results of these investigations are discussed in?depth.
ELONGATIONAL RHEOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE PLA/PBSA BLENDS
Hassan Eslami, Musa R. Kamal, May 2012
Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The morphology of the blends was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elongational flow properties of the blends and pure components were studied. A strong strain hardening behavior was observed for PLA/PBSA blends, in which PBSA forms the continuous phase (PBSA wt% ? 50). The results of tensile test showed that even for blends containing only 10wt% PBSA, elongation at break increased significantly. By the addition of PBSA to PLA, a transition from brittle behavior (observed for pure PLA) to ductile behavior was observed.
EMERGING FIBER LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR MARKING PLASTICS
Scott R. Sabreen, May 2012
Ytterbium Fiber Lasers are transforming laser marking of plastics. For the proper application, superior results can be achieved versus Nd:YAG and Vanadate marking lasers. However, fiber lasers are not direct replacements without thorough evaluation, and not all lasers are created equal. The metric for beam quality is M2. The smaller the M2 value, the better the beam quality, whereas M2 = 1 is the ideal laser beam. A laser with superior beam quality can be focused to a small spot size, which leads to a high energy density which is, for many applications, desirable or even required. Such is the case for many thermoplastics including POM Acetals such as Delrin. Fiber lasers are considerably less expensive to procure with zero consumables, only electricity. Further, these lasers are a “Greener” technology than YAG or Vanadate.
ENVIRONMENTAL AGING OF COATED FABRICS COMPOSITES
James M. Sloan, D. Flanagan, C. Pergantis, P. Touchet, H. Feuer, May 2012
The purpose of this work was to perform a comparative analysis of various candidate nitrile coated fabric materials supplied by potential vendors to be used as fuel storage tanks and compare the results to the currently fielded polyurethane storage tanks. Our strategy is to utilize advanced environmental ageing methods to simulate extended weathering conditions. Our results demonstrate that the nitrile coated fabrics performed well in our evaluation. Their breaking strengths are about equal to the currently fielded urethanes and they performed comparably when subjected to environmental ageing conditions.
THE SCIENCE OF FORMULATING OLEFIN BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Jeff Munro, Jose M. Rego, Lisa Madenjian, Kim Walton, May 2012
Introduced in 2006, INFUSE™ Olefin Block Copolymers (OBCs) have since been explored in many markets and application areas, including soft compounds. Key molecular design elements were identified as critical factors to the manufacturing of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) with the required property balance. This paper is aimed at providing an overview of the main considerations for formulating OBCs for soft compound applications and highlights the sustainability advantage of OBC compounds relative to styrenic block copolymer compounds.
THEMOPLASTIC STARCH AND POLYETHYLENE BLEND FOR BLOW MOLDED BOTTLE
Gregory J. Anderson, May 2012
HDPE was blended with TPS and blow molded into bottles. The packaging related GHG emissions were reduced 80 percent. The method involved two extruders. The first converted the starch into TPS, while the second mixed the HDPE and TPS for a co-continuous morphology. Further dilution during the melt forming stage resulted in fine droplets of TPS dispersed throughout. The TPS was used in various layer combinations without sacrificing the appearance or performance of the bottles.
TRANSFER EFFICIENCY VERSUS COATING WASTE REDUCTION
Ken Eyestone, May 2012
This paper will discuss published transfer efficiency of a spray applicator versus the real transfer efficiency of the spray applicator. The testing protocols used to determine the published transfer efficiency of a spray applicator will be discussed in relation to actual use of the spray applicator in a manufacturing coating process. The most common sources of material waste and the methods to reduce them to acceptable levels will be used to guide the reader to maximize the real transfer efficiency of their spray application system.
FABRRICATION OF HIGHLY TUBULAR POROUS CHITOSAN/POLY (DL LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA) NANOCOMPOSITE STRUCTURES INTENDED FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING SCAFFOLD APPLICATIONS
Zhixiang Cui, HaiBin Zhao, YiYen Peng, XiaoFeng Wang, Jian Han, Lih-Sheng Turng, Changyu Shen, May 2012
In this study, highly tubular porous chitosan/poly (DL lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocomposite structures were produced via electrospinning and unidirectional freeze drying techniques. The 3D porous structure of chitosan/PLGA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of the chitosan/PLGA nanocomposite, including porosity, water absorption, and mechanical properties, were investigated. The results showed that a highly tubular porous structure with nano-topography was formed and the compressive modulus increased greatly due to the addition of PLGA nanofibers.
FRICTION SPOT JOINING OF ALUMINUM 6181-T4 AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLY(PHENYLENE SULFIDE)
Jodo Esteve, Sergio Amancio-Filho, Jorge dos Santos, Leonardo Canto, Elais Hage Jr., May 2012
Due to the increasing use of polymer-metal multi- material structures in automotive and aerospace industries, joining technology has grown in importance. Available techniques to join polymer-metal multi-material structures have been identified to be either too expensive, limited in performance or not environmental friendly. This work intends to investigate the feasibility of the new Friction Spot Joining technology on aluminum AA6181-T4 / poly(phenylene sulfide) laminate structures. Friction spot lap joints with high mechanical strength (29 MPa) were produced and investigated in terms of process temperature (average peak temperatures from 224 to 316 °C) microstructure and compared with similar joints available in the literature. Joints obtained by friction spot presented mechanical performance similar or superior to other available techniques used for joining polymer-metal structures. This is an indicative of the potential of this new technology to produce high performance metal-polymer multi-material structures.
FUNCTIONALITY IN MULTILAYER FILMS FOR PACKAGING
F. Sadeghi, R. Silverwood, A. Housni, A. Ajji, May 2012
During the last decades, the food, pharmaceutical and many other industries have seen several changes in packaging technology and applications because of new consumer demands and market trends. These drivers can be summarized as requirements for high quality, freshness and extended shelf-life of products, with easy-to-use and resistant packaging made with lighter, cheaper and recyclable materials. On the other hand, public demand and awareness for food safety has become a significant concern. This has even intensified on the recent regular outbreak of Listeria and Salmonella bacteria in various area of the world, following the consumption of contaminated meat and cheese products. The outbreak has prompted the public awareness to question food quality in stores and technological solutions that could prevent contamination and/or alert consumers may provide better public protection. Finally, the global market for materials and films used in packaging is very large. When decomposed into various segments such as controlled, active, and smart or barrier packaging, the volumes used and annual growth rates are significant in addition to other concerns such as sustainability. The performance of polymer films and multilayer packages are the result of the microstructure that is imparted to the material as a result of complex interactions between the resin and the thermo- mechanical history that it experiences during processing. This microstructure is strongly influenced by molecular parameters of the resins used (molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branching, co-monomer type and content, etc.), their layout in multilayer structures and the additives used as well as the rheological, thermodynamic, thermal properties and the crystallization kinetics under the processing conditions. In the past, most of the studies were directed to the improvement of structural properties of films and multilayer structures (mainly mechanical: strength, tear, toughness etc...) and muc


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