The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
A STUDY ON RECYCLING OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB) COPOLYMER AND ITS EFFECT ON MATERIAL PROPERTIES.
This study focuses on the ability of PHB copolymer to be processed a number of times and use of different virgin to regrind ratios. This work studied the effect of regrind levels and heat history on material properties of PHB Copolymer. The material was recycled for 10 regrind generations and also was studies for 7 regrind ratios with virgin material. 79% reduction in viscosity and 10% reduction in ultimate tensile strength were observed for 10 regrind generation. Also a drop of 5% was observed in the viscosity and ultimate tensile strength with a 50:50 virgin to regrind ratio.
A STUDY ON THE ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF BIO-BASED COMPOSITE FOAMS OF PLA AND PHBV
Bio-based foams are the solution to environmental concerns regarding petrochemical-based foams. However, bio-based foams possess weak structure. To increase the potential of replacing current petrochemical foams, mechanical characteristics of bio-based foams need to be improved. This paper studies the effect of blending two bio-based polymers on mechanical and acoustic properties of resulting polymer composite foams. Blends of Polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) were foamed and characterized in terms of acoustic, mechanical properties and foam morphology.
BIO- ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (BIO-ABS): CREATING A NEW GREEN POLYMER THROUGH MELT BLENDING
In this paper, the method for design of a bio-based green material for use in electronics applications is discussed. The aim is substitution of currently used petroleum-based acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with a bio-based polymer blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and ABS. In this method, polymers will be melt blended and extruded to test their thermal and mechanical properties. The goal is to achieve performance of the blend equal or better to currently used ABS, as well as be a cost competitive alternative.
A STUDY ON THE PERCOLATION AND DEFORMATION MECHANISM OF POLY(BUTADIENE ADIPATE-CO-TEREPHTHALATE)-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Poly(butadiene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is a biodegradable polymer that is used in film applications due to its exceptional elongational properties. Nanoclays such as organically-modified layered silicates are used in an increasing number of applications to improve mechanical, thermal and barrier properties of films. This work aims to elucidate the deformation mechanism and the effects of incorporating a modified MMT clay into PBAT at various clay loading through viscoelastic and tensile measurements, XRD and TEM imaging.
ALL GREEN STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES FROM KENAF FIBER AND POLY(FURFURYL ALCOHOL)
The search for natural resource based composites for a spectrum of commercially viable “green products” is drawing a great importance in recent time. In this regard, natural fibers have become an attractive substitute for synthetic glass fibers in polymer composite systems. The natural fibers have advantages such as lower cost, eco- friendly nature, biodegradability, high specific strength, and good mechanical properties as compared to glass fiber. Amongst the biobased matrices, poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA), possesses high chemical and heat resistance properties. This makes it suitable for chemical resistance, corrosion resistant and heat stable type applications. As such, an overview of the recent development of PFA based natural fiber composites in terms of their overall properties and their future prospective is evaluated in this work.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES BASED ON BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
This research was performed to compare mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites based on PLA and PLA/PBS blend. Wood-plastic composites were prepared by melt compounding 70 wt% plastics; PLA, PLA/PBS 70:30 wt% blend, or PP; and 30 wt% pine wood fibers. A suitable coupling agent was used to improve compatibility between polymer matrix and wood fibers. Tensile, flexural, impact and fracture toughness were evaluated and compared. Phase dispersion and interfacial adhesion was studied by SEM.
ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES SYNTHESIZED BY USING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM WASTED TIRES AS CARBON SOURCE
This paper focuses on the synthesis and morphological characterization of carbon nanostructures obtained from the decomposition of residual solids waste tire (RSWT) in quartz tubes under reduced pressure (1.33 Pa) at 900 °C for 15 minutes. The synthesis exhibits, principally the formation of two phases: the first a fragmented solid black powder constituted by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), onion-type fullerenes and spheres, the second a very bright metallic dark film. Analysis by microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the MWCNTs had an average diameter of approximately 25 nm and a length greater than 100 nm while the diameter of onion-type fullerenes was found to be 8 nm. The nanospheres showed different diameters, from 500 nm to 1.5 ?m and some have a metallic core surrounded by layers of carbon. The infrared spectra of the nanotubes exhibited absorption bands at 1631 and 1458 cm-1, corresponding to the double C=C and C-C bonds, and signals at 3438 and 1080 cm-1 that are related to the OH and C-O groups from oxidized graphite as it was identified in the dark film.
ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE-FREE FLAME RETARDANT SYSTEMS FOR POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Flame retardants in polymers play a significant role in protecting lives and reducing damage in the event of a fire. Typically brominated flame retardants (BFR) require a synergist such as antimony trioxide (ATO) that enables lower loadings of the BFR in polymer formulations. However for compliance to certain voluntary environmental standards, it is desirable to replace ATO partially or completely in polymer formulations. This work describes the replacement of ATO in formulations containing a newly developed flame retardant, Emerald 1000 (FR1). In high impact polystyrene (HIPS), FR1 is shown to exhibit good flame retardancy when combined with a char forming polymer like polyphenylene ether (PPE). Similarly in polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems, FR1 shows good flame retardancy, without the need for ATO synergist. More importantly FR1 does not negatively impact the mechanical properties of the system.
DEECOM®: A SUSTAINABLE PROCESS USED IN VARIOUS RECLAMATION PROCESSES
Polymer manufacturing utilizes metal parts which are reclaimed for reuse. Traditional reclamation methods utilize solvents and other chemicals which have high energy demand and involve expensive disposal methods. The DEECOM® technology, solvent-free relatively low temperature reclamation technology, is based on pressure swing techniques designed to physically disrupt and remove polymer from parts. The process mechanism results in filter reclamation procedures that have high degree of sustainability and provide opportunity to recycle the removed polymer.
DEVELOPMENT OF DRYLESS PELLET -APPLICATION OF PELLET ENGINEERING
This study was carried out to clarify a relationship between moisture absorption fraction and higher-order structure of dry-less recycled PET pellets. Karl Fischer moisture titration, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic Raman spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the pellets to determine distinct structures that differentiates the dry-less pellets with normal pellets.
EFFECT OF D-LACTIDE CONTENT ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYLACTIDE IN PRESENCE OF CO2 DISSOLVED GAS
In this study, the effect of dissolved CO2 on the thermal behavior of PLA with various D-contents (with and without talc) has been investigated during the cooling process at atmospheric pressure in a regular differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a high-pressure DSC. The results show that the crystallinity of PLA samples improves by increasing the CO2 pressure, reducing the D-content, and adding talc. Also, Tg and Tm shift to lower temperatures as the pressure increases, due to the plasticization effect of CO 2.
EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE MAT REINFORCED POLYCABORNATE COMPOSITES
This paper presents the possibility of using natural fiber as reinforcement for engineering thermoplastics composite. Jute mats from waste coffee bag were treated by thermoset resin such as flexible epoxy resin (FE) to improve their thermal resistance prior to compression mold with polycarbonate (PC). The effects of epoxy contents on thermal properties and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated.
EFFECT OF RECYCLE ON PROPERTIES SABIC
It is well known that there can be significant sacrifices in properties of recycle containing products. Properties such as color, impact, consistency, and long term aged properties, are commonly reduced in recycled products. We will discuss reasons for loss in properties; showing how these can be modeled with Monte Carlo simulations. Examples will be given to illustrate these property loss effects in polycarbonate, polyester, and in polymer blend products. It will be shown how recycle content products can be designed to have acceptable property profiles.
BIO-BASED POLYAMIDES WITH INNOVATIVE FIBRES FOR ENGINEERING PARTS MATERIALS – PROCESS – CHARACTERIZATION - APPLICATIONS
Bio-based polyamides, such as PA 6.10/ Nylon 6.10 and PA 10.10, were compounded with different cellulosic fibers for injection molding applications. PA 6.10 is partly bio-based (>60%) and possessing properties very similar to those of common PA 6. The melting point of PA 6.10 is 220°C and therefore compounding with thermally sensitive cellulose fibres is a challenge. A compounding process for engineering polymers, like polyamide with cellulose fibres, was developed and optimized. It is gentle to the fibers, even at temperatures above 200°C. Furthermore, the molding process parameters were also optimized. Different mechanical properties were studied. The high impact behavior and lightweight potentiality were analyzed for bio-composites with cellulosic fibres.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF A POLY(ACRYLONITRILE:BUTADIENE:STYRENE) CUP HOLDER
Environmental stress cracking (ESC) resistance has become an essential industrial criterion for engineering thermoplastics, as ESC causes unexpected brittle fracture of ductile amorphous plastics. In the automotive industry, a variety of amorphous plastics are used, which need to be ESC resistant, as they come in contact with various fluids while subjected to mechanical stresses. PC-ABS materials offer a good compromise between processibility, cost and mechanical properties. However, this material is prone to ESC failure.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF POLYCARBONATES EXPOSED TO SUNSCREEN AND HAND LOTION
Three general purpose polycarbonate (PC) resins and one PC-siloxane copolymer were injection molded, then exposed to isopropyl alcohol (IPA), hand lotion, and SPF 30 sunscreen while under strain. The hand lotion exhibited the most aggressive environmental stress cracking (ESC) behavior. Effects of molecular weight, polymer composition and annealing are addressed. Scanning electron microscopy of an ESC fracture surface is also presented.
BIOMASS MATERIALS, SHAPE MEMORY POLYURETHANE
In this study, the aliphatic or aromatic isocyanates and poly-alcohols was used to synthesize polyurethane with shape memory function, which the polyol was derived from the biomass polylactic acid (PLA). The recycled PLA was degraded into the low molecular weight PLA (Mw 1,000) and the chain extension agent (1,4-butanediol, BDO) reaction was added to form biomass polyol. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were proved the synthesis of polyol. The recovery ratio of shape memory and mechanical properties of polyurethane were improved significantly due to the urea structure, the biomass polyurethane with shape memory could be increased up to 95% of recovery ratio. Different isocyanate (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI, or 4,4- diphenylmethene diisocyanate, MDI) were compared and found that the functional group of aromatic was better than that of aliphatic in the synthesis of polyurethane with shape memory behavior.
CARBON NANOTUBES IN BLENDS OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH/POLYCAPROLACTONE CARBON NANOTUBES IN BLENDS OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH/POLYCAPROLACTONE
Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been blended with thermoplastic starch (TPS) and carbon nanotubes in different compositions. The localisation of solid particles is an influential factor in filled polymer blends. Hence, SEM and TEM images have been used to investigate the morphology and localisation of nanofilled-polymer blends. .The blending of a semicrystalline polymer with another polymer or nanofillers will also change the thermal properties of the polymers in different ways. This change has been studied by non-isothermal crystallization curve analyses. These results were interconnected in such a way that it was possible to confirm the localisation from thermal properties.
CHAIN EXTENSION OF RECYCLED POLYAMIDES : HOW TO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF RECYCLED PA IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
The present work attempted to implement reactive compatibilisation of blends of recycled engineering plastics, more particularly the case of recycled PA66 contaminated by recycled PA6. Low molecular weight, high Tg Styrene-Maleic Anhydride copolymers were tested as chain extenders / compatibilizers. It appeared that the addition of 2% by weight of SMA to an incompatible system of recycled PA6 and PA66 improved both ductility and impact performance by factors of at least 10 and 1.5 respectively. Moreover, high Tg SMA improved performances at elevated temperature, partly due to its ability to effectively crosslink but also because of its inherent heat resistance.
IN SITU OBSERVATION OF THE FOAMING PROCESSES OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBER REINFORCED POLYLACTIC ACID BIOCOMPOSITES
This paper examines the effect of fiber content on the foaming behavior of cellulose nanofiber reinforced polylactic acid biocomposites. The in situ observation of batch foaming processes was conducted by using a high-speed camera. It was found that nanofiber content has a significant effect on the cell nucleation and growth in the composite foams. As the fiber content increased, the cell nucleating power increased and cell growth rate decreased.
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