The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
The testing of plastics has become decidedly different and as technology improves, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of results based on testing methods, particularly when functional durability is critical. The research discussed in this paper focuses on the effect of changing test parameters in relation to the falling dart impact test, more commonly referred to as the Gardner impact test (ASTM D5420). The drop weight protocol accommodates real geometries and reflects environmental conditions including temperature and percent relative humidity, as well as end-use impacting speeds but is affected by tup weight, probe diameter, and support ring.
Environmental stress cracking is the most common failure reason of plastic parts. The influence of the processing conditions e.g. of the injection molding process on the environmental stress cracking resistance has not been investigated yet. Therefore several tests are carried out at the IKV. Test specimens are injection molded with different parameters for melt temperature, mold temperature and injection rate. These parameter variations cause variable inner properties of the molded parts. The environmental stress cracking resistance of specimens with different inner properties differs in a wide range. The results are discussed in detail.
The injection moulding process has a complicated set of process parameters and is subject to variations over time resulting from material, environmental and machine component changes. In order to maintain product quality it has been proven that monitoring the process signals is beneficial towards identifying possible changes in the moulded product. Here, the process signals (melt pressure, temperature and screw displacement) are utilised along with material pressure-specific volume-temperature (pvT) characteristics to estimate the moulded product mass. The successful validation of this method presented over a range of processing conditions.
Polylactide, polyester derived from renewable resources, can be synthesized using either L-lactide or D-lactide. A unique crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) stereocomplex(SC) was observed when a PLLA/PDLA blend was subjected to the specific melting conditions. Therefore, we tried to blend PLLA and PDLA at overall compositions to form PLA stereocomplexes. Moreover, impact modifier was added to enhance the mechanical properties such as impact strength. The presence of the SC in the PLLA matrix was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal and mechanical property of stereocomplexes were investigated by DSC, HDT, Izod impact tester, UTM.
Thermoformable Fluorex Bright Film was developed to emulate the appearance of plated chrome. However, unlike plated chrome, Bright Film is flexible and thermoformable and can be applied to TPO. The film technology is environmentally friendly and cost-effective, and it has practical applications in various manufacturing processes, such as insert injection molding, thick-sheet thermoforming and extrusion lamination processes. Backed by successful weathering and other testing results, Bright Film has been accepted by the marketplace to accommodate or replace chrome plating as a decorative material for both interior and exterior finishes in the automotive and other industries.
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
Triticale is being developed and aimed as an industrial crop and biorefinery feedstock for the Canadian manufacturing industry within the CTBI networking. In this paper the potential of triticale starch for the TPS/polymer blend fabrication was explored in terms of the starch morphology, crystallization structure, and the TPS (thermoplastic starch) rheology properties. The possibility of using triticale to make 100% biobased blown film was investigated using a small lab-scale film blown line. Film thickness of 25 um was obtained successfully for the triticale starch based PLA/TPS blends.
Ultrasonic cutting systems are employed with materials that are difficult to cut with standard mechanical systems. The cutting knife/edge typically vibrates at a frequency of 20-60 kHz, heating the substrate during the cutting and simultaneously sealing the cut edges. Polylactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic material derived from starch and sugar, is relatively brittle compared to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which has similar mechanical properties. This brittleness is problematic during mechanical cutting, which produces micro-cracks that further embrittle the material.
The containers and closures market utilizes numerous decorating techniques on a variety of plastic and glass substrates. These decorating methods need to be functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. UV curable coatings can offer value to this market by providing high performance decorative coatings that are cost effective, easy to process and environmentally friendly. This paper will discuss the benefits of using UV curable coatings as an alternative to other ways of decorating containers, some challenges encountered in formulating coatings to meet all specifications of the containers and closures market, and typical performance and processing requirements.
Nanocomposites based on polycaprolactone exhibit enhanced tensile properties and controlled biodegradation rates.
An emerging electrospinning technique enables the fabrication of multilayered fibrous membranes with high fiber density and reliable fiber alignment.
Poly(L-lactide) prepared by freeze-drying exhibits higher crystallizability than the bulk polymer.
Chain extenders blended with recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) improve mechanical properties and moldability.
Pre-process drying is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way to enhance adhesion between fillers and polymers.
Novel polyurethanes obtained from vegetable oil exhibit appreciably improved mechanical performance with inclusion of just 0.5% by weight of nanosized cellulose crystals.
Polymers are easily prepared by bulk polycondensation based on metal-halide salt formation, while crystallization is strongly influenced by incorporation and distribution of silicate nanoparticles.
Hydrolytic degradation and elongation properties of polylactic acid can be enhanced by blending with polyhydroxybutyrate.
An improved extrusion technique for polyvinyl chloride regrind could be useful to manufacturers, builders, and architects.
Composite mechanical behavior is critically influenced by interfacial compatibility between the filler and polymer matrix.
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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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