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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
UV Monocoat: Ad Advanced Coating Technology for Consumer Electronics
Renlong Gao, Kurt Humbert, May 2013
Surface coatings on plastic substrates with excellent physical performance, low application cost, and minimum environmental impact are highly desirable for various commercial applications. Here we describe PPG’s ultraviolet (UV) monocoat technology for consumer electronics, which afforded both protection and decoration of plastic substrates with a single-layer colored coating system. Studies demonstrated that UV monocoat applied on plastic computer and cellphone parts successfully met or exceeded customers’ specifications, showing good adhesion to plastic substrates, excellent abrasion and scratch resistance, good chemical resistance, and high weathering stability. UV monocoat also enabled a variety of colors with a wide range of gloss for decoration of plastic substrates. In addition, UV monocoat uniquely combined a single-layer design with UV cure technology, which significantly increased on-line coating capacity and efficiency and dramatically reduced application cost and environmental impact.
Vandar® High Impact Strength Polyester for Sporting Goods
Mukul Kaushik, Dirk Zierer, Jeanne Pilis, May 2013
andar® 2100 is an impact modified engineering thermoplastic resin developed to deliver consistent performance over a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions, primarily in injection molded articles. Vandar 2100 provides outstanding ductility and stiffness combined with the excellent chemical and environmental resistance properties of polyesters. The unreinforced and higher flexibility Vandar® grades fill the property gap between standard thermoplastic polyesters and elastomers. These plastics are easy to process including by injection molding and retain their impact strength down to -30 °C.
Multifunctional nanocomposites for environmental remediation
Xi Zhang, Suying Wei, Huige Wei, Jiang Guo, Hongbo Gu, John Zhanhu Guo, May 2013
Polyaniline-magnetite nanocomposites can efficiently remove Cr(VI) from polluted water, be retrieved easily with a magnet, be regenerated with acid, and be reused for further Cr(VI) removal.
Improved blown film extrusion of biopolymers
Khalid Lamnawar , Abderrahim Maazouz, June 2013
Poly(lactic acid) optimized with chain extenders, plasticizers, and nucleating agents forms stable and defect-free films with improved mechanical properties.
Economical and environmentally friendly synthesis of porous cation-exchange resins
Syed Wasim Ali, Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Arif Malik, July 2013
A method to synthesize strongly acidic cation-exchange resins from porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers can quickly monitor porosity and significantly reduce cost, health risks, and pollution.
Fully bio-based composites from gluten and seaweed waste fibers
Rafael Balart , Alfredo Carbonell, Octavio Fenollar, Begona Ferrero, Maria Dolores Samper, July 2013
Using natural fatty acids to treat the cellulose components of green composites reinforced with agro-waste fibers reduces their water uptake resulting in stable and environmentally friendly materials.
Totally bioresorbable stents with improved properties for cardiovascular disease
Jianting Dong, Lan Liao, Zhongyong Fan, Suming Li, Zhiqian Lu, August 2013
Semi-crystalline terpolymers prepared from L-lactide, trimethylene carbonate, and glycolide are promising materials for cardiovascular stents.
Cellulose nanocrystals from garlic stalks as reinforcing filler for bioplastics
Fumihiko Hirose, Bashir Ahmmad, Joel R. Salazar, Enna Richel De Leon, Jerico Buenaobra, Melissa B. Agustin, August 2013
Starch-based biocomposite films incorporating spherical cellulose nanocrystals from garlic stalks offer a novel application of an underused natural fiber.
Influence of graphene oxide on the thermal properties of phenolic resin
Yongxin Chen, Zhengjun Yao, Jintang Zhou , Tishou Xu, Yibing Wu, August 2013
Addition of graphene oxide enhances the elasticity, stiffness, and tensile strength of phenolic resin, and improves its heat stability by nearly 30°C.
Adhesive Technology for Automotive Multi-Material Substrate Bonding
Frank Billotto, September 2013
The global trend towards improved fuel efficiency and reduced environmental impact is driving the use of new and dissimilar substrates for lightweight vehicle construction. Modern lightweight designs require new joining technologies to support the use of new materials as well as an increased use of mixed material substrates. Adhesive bonding is an enabler for lightweight and mixed substrate construction — allowing joining where traditional methods are not feasible — and takes advantage of structural bonding benefits such as improved load bearing capability enhanced NVH performance ride and handling and safety. This presentation will focus on the available adhesive-bonding solutions and will give an outlook into future adhesive-development directions.
Alternative Precursors for Sustainable and Cost-Effective Carbon Fibers usable within the Automotive Industry
Hendrik Mainka, September 2013
Lightweight design is an essential part of the overall Volkswagen strategy for reducing the CO2 emissions. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) offers an enormous lightweight potential. The use of CFRP is limited in mass series applications by the costs of the conventional C-fiber precursor Poly-Acrylic-Nitrile (PAN). The investigation of novel alternative precursors enabling a significant reduction in the costs of CFRP automotive parts is essential to make carbon fibers ready for a mainstream use within the automotive industry
Commercial Applications of Bio-Based Polymers in Automotive
Rick Bell, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Automotive Sunroof Systems & Frames in Xiran® SMA/ABS
Marcia Kurcz, September 2013
Automotive sunroof systems which have become a must-have for the added comfort and styling to today's cars increasingly rely on engingeering plastics functionalities to replace mtals. Structural and semi-structural sunroof module components sunroof frames in particular typically need to meet a wide range of technical requirements with a clear focus on the integration of functions safety cost and weight reduction. The glass-reinforced materials thermoplastics and thermosets currently used for sunroof frames are mostly based on PBT/ASA PBT PA PP and unsaturated polyester SMC. These products are not a perfect match for the application needs of today and the future. Glass-reinforced SMA/ABS on the other hand offers an ideal unique combination of properties required in sunroof frames and systems. SMA/ABS-GF compounds such as Polyscope's Xiran SG grades have clear technical and commercial benefits such as; high dimensional stability and precision very large warpage compliance to mold cavity shape good performance at low wall thickness high creep resistance excellent adhesion without surface treatment low density high economic value good chemical resistance and easy recylability with efficient waste streams.
Eco-Friendly Automotive Plastic Seat Design
Dev Barpanda, September 2013
This paper deals with plastic front and rear seat designs that provide more than 20% weight reduction for improved fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. The materials of construction include recyclable plastics and “green” polyurethane foam making this design eco-friendly. Low cycle time reduced part count and assembly time optimized contours for passenger comfort and reduced material consumption lead to cost-competitive design.
Fire Resistance Cellulosic Fiber-Thermoset Composites
Tri-Dung Ngo, September 2013
This presentation reports an innovative and sustainable approach to fiber surface treatment that improves the fire resistance of cellulosic fiber/ epoxy composites made with flax fiber. This new approach not only retards burning of cellulosic fiber but also produces self-extinguishing cellulosic-fiber composites. The low-cost treatment was carried out in aqueous solutions using non-toxic inorganic chemicals
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Waste: An Environmental Assessment of Recycling Energy Recovery & Landfilling
Jan-Anders Månson, September 2013
The environmental benefits of recycling carbon fiber- reinforced plastic (CFRP) waste are assessed against other end-of-life (EOL) treatments. Recycling via pyrolysis incineration with energy recovery and disposal via landfilling are compared. To account for physical changes to materials from use and recycling equivalence between recycled and virgin materials is calculated based on the ability to produce a short-fiber composite beam of equivalent stiffness. Secondary effects of using cecycled carbon fiber (RCF) in a hypothetical automotive application are also analyzed. Results underline the ecological constraints towards recycling CFRPs and demonstrate that benefits from recycling are strongly linked to the impacts of the selected recovery process the materials replaced by RCF in a secondary application and also to the type of secondary application in which they are used.
Compaction Behaviour and Permeability of Cellulosic Fibre for RTM Applications
Damien Maillard, September 2013
With the current driving force to use more sustainable and/or recyclable materials the automotive market is considering cellulosic fibres and biocomposites with a growing interest. However for those fibres to be used efficiently in thermoset liquid processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) reinforcement compaction response and permeability must be well-known as they govern resin flow injection time and void formation and therefore are key to success. In this presentation the compaction response and permeability of flax and hemp mats were investigated and compared to traditional glass fibers.
Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic (CFRT®) Inserts for Injection Over-Molding in Structural Applications
Thomas Smith, September 2013
A primary goal in automotive structures is reduction of weight while maintaining or improving other desirable attributes. Composite materials offer solutions to weight reduction in comparison to metal structures and thermoplastic composite materials offer the added benefits of improved cycle times high impact resistance cost-effective solutions and a path for sustainability. Developments in the area of injection over-molding of structural inserts produced from continuous-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRT ®) are an example of this and combine the advantages of injection molding with CFRT properties. Typical applications are in seat structures airbag housings front-end modules and crash beams that take advantage of the excellent strength and impact characteristics of the materials. A seat back application produced with injection over-molding of CFRT inserts is used as a demonstration case study.
More Sustainable Non-Woven Fabric Composites for Automotive Using Coir (Coconut) Fibers
Walter Bradley, September 2013
More environmentally friendly composite materials for automotive manufacturing and building construction have been made by substituting coir fibers for the widely used polyester fibers to make non-woven fabric composites of coir fibers and recycled polypropylene fibers that can be compression molded into a wide range of parts or rolled into flat panels. This more environmentally friendly composite has a greater bending stiffness is more resistant to fire less expensive and without the odor problems that accompany many natural fibers.
Direct Long Biofibre Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Aerospace & Transportation Industries
Victor Bravo, September 2013
Natural fibres such as flax hemp jute and wood are increasingly being used in various industries as reinforcing materials for composites to reduce weight cost and environmental impact. These fibres can have the added benefit of producing equal or higher stiffness-to- weight ratios than glass fibres. However processing natural fibres presents a number of challenges some of which are common to other types of fibres such as the ability to de-bundle mix and uniformly distribute them throughout the entire volume of a composite part. One particular challenge for natural fibres is the processing temperature limitations determined by their propensity to thermally degrade after long exposure times. This paper deals with the challenges of using biofibres as rein forcing materials for hermoplastic resins. The research work involves the use of short flax fibres in a continuous compounding process and flax fibres in the form of rovings and slivers in a Direct-Long Fibre Thermoplastic (D-LFT) process. The materials were compounded and moulded to produce parts for characterization. Polypropylene (PP) was used as polymer matrix because of its proven performance in automotive applications. Flax fibres were chosen given their combination of good mechanical properties availability and relative low cost compared to other bast fibres. Different formulations using heat stabilizers antioxidants and coupling agents were implemented with the objectives of preventing material degradation and improving bonding between the fibres and the thermoplastic material. Formulations with PP and 20% wt. discontinuous fibres showed an increment of up to 30% in tensile strength and 50% in tensile modulus when compared with virgin PP. Experiments using commercial flax rovings and slivers (continuous fibres) in conjunction with glass fibres (i.e. hybridizing of fibres) on an industrial large scale D-LFT line showed the viability of the processing technique for the manufacturing of hybrid reinforced the


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