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Recycling

Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
CLOSED LOOP QUALITY CONTROL OF THE PROCESSING OF UNDRIED POLYCONDENSATES USING MELT DEGASSING SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION
Walter Michaeli , Henning Seidel, May 2010

Processing undried polycondensates as PET or PA using a melt degassing single screw extruder is a real alternative to the conventional energy-, time- and cost-consuming pre-drying process. Due to the industrial demand of processing recycled and low priced materials, the moisture content or/and the resin mixture can substantially vary from batch to batch. This leads to a deviant molecular weight degradation and an unsteady final product quality. The paper presents an approach to compensate these variations in the feedstock in a closed-loop control. It is based on the direct influence of the degassing pressure on the moisture evaporation of the melt. The product quality is estimated online in the extrusion process, e.g. via melt viscosity, and is controlled by the degassing pressure in the extruder.

COMPARISON STUDY OF N2 AND CO2 AS PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENTS FOR INJECTION FOAM MOLDED WOOD-FIBER PLASTIC COMPOSITE
Peter U. Jung, Yongrak Moon, C.B. Park, May 2010

Due to rising environmental concerns, the plastic industry has been seeking bio-plastics that can replace current plastics. Efforts are continuously being made to reduce weight and cost without a major compromise to required properties. Foaming can offer a plastic with significant weight reduction. There has been research to evaluate the effects of chemical blowing agents (CBAs) on wood-fiber plastic composites (WPC). Although physical blowing agents (PBAs) have a number of advantages, their effects on WPC have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this research utilizes N2 and CO2 to analyze their effects on the foaming and mechanical properties of injection foam molded WPCs.

COMPLIMENTARY FAILURE ANALYSIS METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO PLASTIC PIPE
Jennifer M. Hoffman , Maureen T.F. Reitman , Suresh Donthu , Paul Ledwith, May 2010

A variety of methods can be employed to characterize failure modes of plastics and identify contributing factors. By combining visual and microscopic examination with chemical analysis, the reasons for ductile, brittle, or progressive failure may be determined. This paper provides a comparative analysis based on fractography and spectroscopic analysis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe samples that failed due to chemical exposure. Chemical degradation and environmental stress cracking failure modes are explored using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and FTIR.

NATURAL FIBER-PHENOLIC-HANNEBACHITE COMPOSITES: EFFECTS OF FIBER TYPE
Hui Deng , John M. Torkelson, May 2010

The management of greenhouse gasses can certainly benefit from better marshalling of our wooded lands. Therefore, our recent research has focused on developing wood-substitute composites without wood in them from natural fibrous materials, e.g., jute, miscanthus, kenaf, wheat straw, and industrial hemp and plate-like hannebachite crystallites. Imaging, DSC, flexural strength and water sensitivity measurements were undertaken on composites formulated from the aforementioned natural fibers. Comparative effects on the mechanical and thermal properties were ascertained.

NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE POLYESTER FR RESINS
Rama Konduri , Chris van der Weele, May 2010

New family of ENH flame retardant PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) thermoplastic polyester resins developed is aimed at helping electrical/electronics (E/E) manufacturers and suppliers comply with regulations restricting use and disposal of hazardous substances. The non-chlorinated non-brominated resin based on PBT delivers good ductility and strength than other nonhalogen flame-retardant PBT materials as well as electrical properties of standard flame-retardant PBT materials. Some of the resin properties will be discussed in this publication.

CORN (SUGARS) BASED CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER INDUSTRY
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010

Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range cost-effective supply questionable creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.

CORN (SUGARS) BASED POLYMER CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER AND COSMETICS INDUSTRIES
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010

Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers, polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers, stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity, chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new, cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range, cost-effective supply questionable, creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.

CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF TITANATES AND ZIRCONATES - 2010
Salvatore J. Monte, May 2010

Titanate and zirconate coupling agents as invented by the author generate approximately six ACS CAS abstracted works (technical papers, articles and patents) per week. The author will review the literature and update ANTEC attendees on applications in thermoplastics and thermosets with an emphasis on the latest work in nano and green technologies such as biopolymers and landfill biodegradation. For example, investigators Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin; Yao, Fei; Xu, Yanjun from the School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA reported: Composites based on recycled high-polyethylene (RHDPE) and natural fibers i.e. pine wood flour and bagasse were made through melt blending and compression molding. The effects of the fibers and coupling agent type/concn. on the composite properties were studied. The use of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) carboxylated polyethylene (CAPE) and titanium-derived mixt. (TDM)-(20% pellet masterbatch of a neoalkoxy pyrophosphato titanate) improved the compatibility between the bagasse fiber and RHDPE and mech. properties of the resultant composites compared well with those of virgin HDPE composites. The modulus and impact strength of the composites had maxima with MAPE content increase. The composites had lower crystn. peak temps. and wider cryst. temp. range than neat RHDPE and their thermal stability was lower than RHDPE.""

DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF HEMP FIBER REINFORCED THERMOSETTING POLYMER
Shoko Toyoyama , Tomohiko Sugie , Yuka Kobayashi , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010

Natural fiber-reinforced composites are very attractive due to environmental considerations. There are currently many types of natural fibers that are suitable to be used as reinforcement in polymer composites. In this paper hemp fiber mat was selected to be the reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin. In order to determine the long-term water resistance of this composite specimens were immersed into hot water.Weight changes of the specimens were recorded with time and their respective mechanical properties were determined through bending tests. A correlation was established between moisture absorption and mechanical performance of the composites.

PROCESSING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SMC MOLDINGS
Makoto Sarata , Masaharu Nishiura , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010

Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. In this study jute cloth reinforced SMC was fabricated. And the effect of water included in jute cloth was investigated by bending impact and tensile testing. As a result it was revealed that the dry processing was very important to apply natural fiber for composite materials.

Processing and Mechanical Properties of Jute Fabric Reinforced SMC Moldings
Makoto Sarata , Masaharu Nishiura , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010

Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. In this study, jute cloth reinforced SMC was fabricated. And the effect of water included in jute cloth was investigated by bending, impact and tensile testing. As a result, it was revealed that the dry processing was very important to apply natural fiber for composite materials.

PROCESSING AND PERFORMANCE OF HDPE POLYMER BLENDS INCLUDING POST CONSUMER RECYCLED HDPE
T. Beiss, C. Dallner, E. Schmachtenberg, May 2010

With the rapid increase in the market for recycled polyethylene from various sources, there is an urgent need to quantify the performance of these materials. Blends of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) were prepared to obtain specific mechanical properties and MFI. The results show that the MFIs had significant effect on the rheological, mechanical and phase morphology characteristics of the various blends.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AGENT CARRYING, BIODEGRADABLE IMPLANT FOR THE INTRAVESICAL THERAPY OF THE OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME
Walter Michaeli , Ina Michaelis , Joachim Grosse , Matthias von Walter , Erich Wintermantel , Nina Laar, May 2010

The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as a symptom complex which is characterized with frequent urination, urinary incontinence and a strong, sudden urge to urinate even when the bladder is not full. About 10% of the total population have OAB and it occurs in every age group. Apart from the medical, oral therapy, the so called intravesical instillation is used as well. In order to minimise the numerous side effects of the oral therapy like dry mouth, dizziness or depressions a biodegradable, active agent carrying implant for the intravesical therapy of the OAB was aspired. After a project period of two years a biodegradable, active agent carrying polymer implant could be developed.

DEVELOPMENT OF MOISTURE RESISTANT RECYCLED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)
Y. W. Leong , H. Inoya , S.F. Aminuddin , B.C. Ogazi-Onyemaechi , H. Hamada, May 2010

The recycling activities related to poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET has been slow since the material is always thought to possess inferior properties when compared to virgin PET. This study involves the development of novel processing methods to significantly enhance the properties of recycled PET (RPET) especially in terms of moisture resistance.This is particularly important especially when RPET is used for further processing that involves heating such as injection molding since the presence of moisture would severely degrade the material. The drying process of RPET pellets would also require at least a few hours which could significantly affect production cycles. The improvement in moisture resistance can be realized through the control of crystallinity and morphological structure of the RPET pellets during compounding and extrusion processes.

DEVULCANIZATION OF RECYCLED TIRE RUBBER CRUMB WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2: CURING BEHAVIOR, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DEGREE OF DEVULCANIZATION
M. Meysami , C. Tzoganakis, May 2010

In this work the devulcanization of tire rubber crumb was studied by using an industrial scale twin screw extruder. A reasonably high throughput extrusion process has been developed and the effect of processing conditions has been studied. The effects of different screw configurations, screw speed and feed rate on the stability of process have been investigated. Crosslink density and percent of devulcanization of different samples are measured. Curing behavior, tensile strength, and elongation at break of different compounds consisting of blends of virgin rubber with devulcanized crumb have also been evaluated.

DEVULCANIZATION OF RECYCLED TIRE RUBBER CRUMB WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2: CURING BEHAVIOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DEGREE OF DEVULCANIZATION
M. Meysami , C. Tzoganakis, May 2010

In this work the devulcanization of tire rubber crumb was studied by using an industrial scale twin screw extruder. A reasonably high throughput extrusion process has been developed and the effect of processing conditions has been studied. The effects of different screw configurations screw speed and feed rate on the stability of process have been investigated. Crosslink density and percent of devulcanization of different samples are measured. Curing behavior tensile strength and elongation at break of different compounds consisting of blends of virgin rubber with devulcanized crumb have also been evaluated.

DURABILITY OF NATURAL FIBER SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (ECO-SMC)
Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010

Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part the use of long-span must be possible. Therefore the evaluation of the durability such as degradation is very important subject. In this study SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) that reinforcement was jute cloth were prepared. The jute cloth reinforced SMC was immersed in hot water to promote the degradation. And after immersion an increase ratio of water and bending properties were compared with that of jute cloth reinforced SMC without immersion. As a result the fracture mechanism changed from the combination of crack propagation in matrix area and delamination in the interface around the fiber bundle to only crack propagation in matrix area by water immersion.

Durability of Natural Fiber Sheet Molding Compound (Eco-SMC)
Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010

Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts, the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part, the use of long-span must be possible. Therefore, the evaluation of the durability such as degradation is very important subject. In this study, SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) that reinforcement was jute cloth were prepared. The jute cloth reinforced SMC was immersed in hot water to promote the degradation. And after immersion, an increase ratio of water and bending properties were compared with that of jute cloth reinforced SMC without immersion. As a result,the fracture mechanism changed from the combination of crack propagation in matrix area and delamination in the interface around the fiber bundle to only crack propagation in matrix area by water immersion.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DEGRADATION OF BIOPLASTICS FROM RENEWABLE POLYFUNCTIONAL MONOMERS
Mathew D. Rowe , Keisha B. Walters, May 2010

Bioplastics were produced by the copolymerization of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) with malonic acid (MA) and with itaconic acid (IA). Effects of reaction temperature and time were examined on the yields and molecular weight (MW) distributions. The resultant bioplastics were characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR and were found to contain anhydride, ester, and ether backbone functional groups. Hydrolytic degradation of the PDO-MA copolymer was also studied as a function of time, temperature, and pH.

THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF INNOVATION: DELIVERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH CREATIVE PEOPLE
Stephen O. Bozzone , Bonnie J. Bachman, May 2010

The goal of innovation should be to create sustainablecompetitive advantage'not just create inventions withlittle or no market value. In order to compete, the productof service being offered must provide value to theconsumer, be differentiated from competitors' offerings,and be protected from imitation. Frequently employeesand managers involved with product development are notaware of the broader picture and the essential elementsnecessary to create innovative products.










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