The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, PLLA crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
EFFECT OF EXPANDABLE THERMOPLASTIC MICROSPHERES ON MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDED POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA): MICROSTRUCTURE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, AND TENSILE PROPERTIES
Expandable thermoplastic microspheres were employed as chemical blowing agents to produce biodegradable polylactic acid parts. The surface characteristics of the samples were evaluated with a 2D surface roughness analyzer and a white-light 3D surface profiler. It was found that microcellular injection molded parts with ETM exhibit good surface quality, similar to conventional solid injection molded parts. The tensile properties of injection molded PLA samples with variable ETM weight ratios have been investigated. As shown by the testing results, the cell microstructures play an important role in the surface quality and mechanical properties.
EFFECT OF EXTRUSION DEVOLATILIZATION ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF AN END-CAPPED POLYPHENYLENE ETHER COPOLYMER
Methacrylate terminated telechelic polyphenylene ether copolymer is produced by reacting methacrylic acid anhydride with a telechelic PPE copolymer. The reaction takes place in a solvent which needs to be removed in an isolation step. The isolation can be done by precipitation with an anti-solvent or by removing the solvent in a devolatilization unit. Avoidance in the use of an anti-solvent is of interest to make the process more environmentally friendly. This paper describes the feasibility of the use of devolatilization extrusion for the isolation step and investigates the effect devolatilization extrusion has on the structure and properties of the copolymer.
EFFECT OF PELLET SIZES ON MOISTURE ABSORPTION AND THERMAL DECOMPOSITION KINETIC OF RECYCLED PET/RECYCLED PP BLEND
This study considers the effects of pellet geometry on its moisture absorption and thermal decomposition kinetic of recycled polyethylene-terephthalate (RPET) and recycled polypropylene (RPP) blend. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) was used for the kinetic study, which it was suitable for thermal degradation of RPET/RPP blend in N2 while the second order polynomial was fitted for degradation in air. Finer powders were found to have higher moisture absorption rates due to their large surface area although they could also be easily dried. Meanwhile, larger pellets exhibited higher degradation activation energies, which suggest that they are more resistant to thermal degradation than smaller grains.
SCRATCH VISIBILITY: ERICHSEN DELTA L AND ASTM/ISO ASSESSMENTS OF TPO RESINS
Automotive parts are constantly subjected to harsh environmental abuse but still must meet consumer's aesthetic scrutiny. Surface durability is especially important and scratch resistance has been an area of interest for design experts and polymer engineers. Two significant approaches to measuring this phenomenon have emerged: Erichsen Delta L and ASTM/ISO progressive load test. This paper will compare assessments obtained from the two methodologies.
SECOND GENERATION BIO-FOAMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
The use of seed oils derived polyols in high end polyurethane applications has been limited in the past by the reduced compatibility and reactivity. Flexible foams with up to 25 % substitution of the petroleum-based polyols with renewable component were produced and characterized, based on a new generation of plant oil based polyol. The technology brings significant enhancement in foam elastic properties and improved processing characteristics, allowing for a potentially higher penetration in automotive seating applications.
EFFECT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL pH ON THE CORROSION BIOINHIBITIVE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCHES
The effect of the environmental pH on the properties of modified cassava starches as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel, was evaluated. Two species were tested: activated (AS) and carboxymethylated starch (CMS). The species were studied using electrochemical measurements in tap water under neutral and alkaline conditions. It was found that protection provided by these biopolymers is dependent on the acidity of the system. Their efficiency is related to the formation of a chelate between macromolecules and ferrous cations. When lowering the pH, the active groups tend to be protonated, hindering the protection afforded for these biopolymers.
ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSING OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING APPLICATIONS
In order to evaluate an economical alternative for the recycling of commingled plastics, pellets of Polyethylene (PE) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), two incompatible widely used polymers, were compression-molded using radio-frequency (RF) heating and conventional conductive heating (CH). The main advantage of the RF system over the CH system is the shorter processing time. However, the fast heating in the RF process caused PVC degradation and reduction of the mechanical properties of the molded products. To solve this problem Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) was placed, as a process-specific additive, at the interface between the PVC and PE, using a solvent coating technique.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECYCLED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE BRIDGES
Reinforced thermoplastic composite lumber (RTCL) sourced from recycled materials is an emerging technology available for heavily loaded infrastructure applications. RTCL materials offer a sustainable alternative and many advantages over traditional construction materials, like wood and steel. Research, development, and experimental projects over the past 15 years, have culminated in several RTCL high load capacity military installations. RTCL advantages and high load capacity infrastructure applications are reviewed in this work.
ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE PBT BASED ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS
This paper provides insights into a newly launched portfolio of environmentally progressive products. These molding compositions are based on a polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) that is made by chemical regeneration of post consumer recycle polyethylene terephthalate (PCR PET) and converted into PBT. These products can then be used in a variety of automotive and consumer applications. These new products' manufacturing processes require less energy and non-renewable fossil fuels as compared to the manufacturing processes of conventional fossil fuel based materials. We will present the comparison of properties results of molding compositions using this new technology and traditional PBT will be presented.
EVALUATION OF BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYESTER RESINS WITH INCREASED GREEN CONTENT
Three different biodegradable copolyesters with increased green content (starting from 31 %) made from recycled post consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were evaluated in comparison to commercial poly(butylene terephthalate-co-adipate) (PBAT) in terms of thermal, rheology, and physical properties. The melting temperature of the resins is lower compared to commercial PBAT due to the presence of isophthalate and traces of diethylene glycol (DEG) linkages from PET. The melt flow values are 2.5 times higher than those of commercial PBAT, which has extensive branching. New resins show low crystallinity, high flexibility, and no break at maximum elongation compared to commercial PBAT.
EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE TO AUTOMOTIVE WINDSHIELD WASHER FLUID
Polymethylmethacrylate material (PMMA) is used in several automotive exterior applications such as exterior appliques and lighting lenses. There are different grades of PMMA that are commonly used for automotive exterior applications. This paper examines the chemical resistance of different grades of PMMA that are commonly used in automotive exterior applications to automotive windshield washer fluid under different strains. The exterior automotive parts are subjected to harsh environments. The parts are exposed to a range of environmental elements such as chemicals, sunlight, rain, snow, cold and hot temperatures. This study focuses on the chemical exposure of PMMA to windshield washer fluid.
THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-BASED/BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN FOOD PACKAGING
Food packaging from bio-based and biodegradable polymeric materials is a relevant topic in today's market with a global emphasis toward sustainability. Physical properties of these natural and synthetic polymers, along with biodegradation rates in the marine environment, have been examined and compared to one another. Major food packaging requirements such as gas barrier, moisture sensitivity, mechanical strength, and service temperature are the focus areas for this research.
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS WITH POLYPROPYLENE
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITES FROM EPOXIDIZED LINSEED OIL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INJECTION MOLDING OF WHEAT-STRAW/HDPE COMPOSITES
Filling polymers with wheat straw can be environmentally responsible and reduce cost. Nowadays most composites with natural fibers are processed by compression molding. This study examined the feasibility of manufacturing wheat-straw and high-density polyethylene composites by injection molding. MFI and thermal analysis of composites with different wheat straw contents were characterized. Mechanical properties of injection molded composites were measured. It has been found the melt points of all composites were about 135C. The fluidity, tensile and impact strengthes of the composites decreased while the wheat straw content increased. However, the flexural strength increased slightly with the increase in wheat-straw content.
EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY OF RAW NATURAL RUBBER FROM NEW CLONES OF HEVEA BRASILIENSIS
Natural rubber (NR) is a biopolymer whose properties depend on the structure of the 1,4-cis polyisoprene chains, non-rubber constituents, environmental conditions. NR has been characterized by traditional methods, but these cannot effectively account for clone's differences. The aim of this work is to use extensional rheology to characterize and differentiate NR samples as for clone type and season of the year. Three IAC 300 series and RRIM 600 clones of Hevea brasiliensis tapped between October 2006 and August 2008 were investigated. The extensional viscosity varied considerably and was more sensitive than any other traditional property, being fundamental for monitoring purposes.
EXTERIOR UV CURABLE TOPCOAT FOR PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION APPLICATIONS
Because of the growing environmental concerns with chrome plating, finishers have been requesting greener alternatives. UV coatings for multi-purpose decoration have been used for several years. However, these coatings do not have the required durability to replace chrome plating. Red Spot has recently developed and launched a UV-curable topcoat for PVD that provides performance characteristics needed to pass the OEMs toughest requirements. This paper addresses the current chrome plating process, challenges associated with developing durable coatings for PVD, an explanation of material application, a list of advantages that the UV/PVD decorative process encompasses, and targeted end applications.
TRITICALE STARCH BASED BIOPLASTICS
Triticale is being developed and aimed as an industrial crop and biorefinery feedstock for the Canadian manufacturing industry within the CTBI networking. In this paper the potential of triticale starch for the TPS/polymer blend fabrication was explored in terms of the starch morphology, crystallization structure, and the TPS (thermoplastic starch) rheology properties. The possibility of using triticale to make 100% biobased blown film was investigated using a small lab-scale film blown line. Film thickness of 25 um was obtained successfully for the triticale starch based PLA/TPS blends.
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